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Table 1 Aspects of personality functioning that contribute to severity determination in Personality Disorder

From: The ICD-11 classification of personality disorders: a European perspective on challenges and opportunities

Degree and pervasiveness of disturbances in functioning of aspects of the self
Stability and coherence of one’s sense of identity (e.g., extent to which identity or sense of self is variable and inconsistent or overly rigid and fixed).
Ability to maintain an overall positive and stable sense of self-worth.
Accuracy of one’s view of one’s characteristics, strengths, limitations.
Capacity for self-direction (ability to plan, choose, and implement appropriate goals).
Degree and pervasiveness of interpersonal dysfunction across various contexts and relationships (e.g., romantic relationships, school/work, parent-child, family, friendships, peer contexts).
Interest in engaging in relationships with others.
Ability to understand and appreciate others’ perspectives.
Ability to develop and maintain close and mutually satisfying relationships.
Ability to manage conflict in relationships.
Pervasiveness, severity, and chronicity of emotional, cognitive, and behavioural manifestations of the personality dysfunction
Tendency to be emotionally over- or underreactive, and having difficulty recognizing unwanted emotions (e.g., does not acknowledge experiencing anger or sadness)
Distortions in the accuracy of situational and interpersonal appraisals under stress (e.g., dissociative states, psychotic-like beliefs or perceptions, and paranoid reactions).
Behavioural responses to intense emotions and stressful circumstances (e.g., propensity to self-harm or violence).
The extent to which the dysfunctions in the above areas are associated with distress or impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.
  1. Note. This abbreviated content is adapted from WHO ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders [2]. The listed features and examples are not exhaustive