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Table 2 Mean (Standard Deviation) and Independent Sample t-test Results for Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Emotion Regulation, and Sleep Measures Across BPD and Healthy Compasison Groups

From: Potential mechanisms underlying sleep disturbance in young people with borderline personality disorder features: an exploratory study

Measure BPD HC Sig.
Depression Anxiety Stress Scale
 Depression 27.41 (11.18) 2.43 (3.47) **
 Anxiety 16.99 (7.98) 1.59 (2.22) **
 Stress 22.26 (9.73) 3.86 (3.45) **
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale
 Global score 127.73 (21.41) 63.79 (12.96) **
 Nonacceptance 18.97 (6.95) 9.74 (3.69) **
 Goals 20.18 (3.83) 12.57 (4.73) **
 Impulse 22.24 (5.76) 7.84 (1.59) **
 Aware 18.83 (6.07) 12.90 (3.46) **
 Strategies 30.49 (6.6) 12.10 (3.36) **
 Clarity 16.26 (4.52) 8.40 (2.04) **
Subjective Sleep
 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 10.41 (4.03) 5.27 (2.36) **
 Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) 14.76 (6.64) 4.04 (3.01) **
 Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) 7.44 (4.46) 6.95 (4.31) n.s.
Objective Sleep
 Bedtime (mins) 12:11 AM (89.91) 12:22 AM (58.92) n.s.
 Rise Time (mins) 9:20 AM (89.19) 8:18 AM (65.43) *
 Time in Bed (mins) 548.82 (79.95) 476.25 (43.17) **
 Total Sleep Time (mins) 492.50 (92.20) 431.05 (66.59) *
 Sleep Onset Latency (mins) 7.68 (7.26) 6.04 (8.19) n.s.
 Sleep Efficiency (%) 89.84% (9.98%) 90.24% (10.82%) n.s.
 Wake After Sleep Onset (mins) 45.14 (46.75) 36.16 (39.92) n.s.
Objective Sleep Variability
 Bedtime (SD-mins) 99.68 (55.28) 64.77 (39.84) *
 Rise Time (SD-mins) 98.68 (43.65) 67.89 (27.36) **
 Time in Bed (CV) 0.20 (0.11) 0.18 (0.09) n.s.
 Total Sleep Time (CV) 0.21 (0.10) 0.20 (0.10) n.s.
  1. Note. BPD Borderline personality disorder. HC Healthy comparison. SD Standard deviation. CV Coefficient of variation. ** = p < .001, * = p < .05, n.s. = non-significant (p > .05). p values represent results of independent samples t-tests between BPD and HC groups