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Table 5 Differences in BPD symptoms, emotion regulation, anxiety and depression between BPD clusters

From: Cluster analysis of personality traits in psychiatric patients with borderline personality disorder

   Lower psychopathology cluster,
mean (SD)
Externalizing cluster,
mean (SD)
Internalizing cluster, mean (SD) Effect size partial η2 F Post-hoc
BSL   2.2 (0.7) 2.7 (0.7) 2.7 (0.7) 0.12 9.35 A < B**, A < C***
DERS-16 Nonacceptance 3.4 (1.1) 3.6 (1.2) 3.9 (1.1) 0.12 2.12  
Goals 4.2 (0.8) 4.4 (0.9) 4.6 (0.5) 0.08 5.55 A < C**
Impulse 3.6 (1.1) 4.3 (0.9) 4.3 (0.8) 0.13 9.81 A < B**, A < C***
Strategies 3.6 (1) 4.0 (0.9) 4.3 (0.6) 0.11 8.10 A < C***
Clarity 3.5 (1) 3.9 (0.9) 3.9 (0.9) 0.05 3.40  
Total 3.7 (0.7) 4.1 (0.7) 4.2 (0.6) 0.13 10.10 A < B*, A < C***
EUC-13   2.7 (0.5) 3.0 (0.4) 2.6 (0.5) 0.09 6.38 C < B*
HSCL-25 Anxiety 2.5 (0.5) 2.8 (0.5) 2.8 (0.5) 0.06 4.13 A < C*
Depression 2.7 (0.6) 3.0 (0.5) 3.0 (0.5) 0.07 5.32 A < C**
Total 2.6 (0.5) 2.9 (0.5) 2.9 (0.4) 0.08 5.93 A < B*, A < C**
  1. Note. BPD = Borderline personality disorder. BSL-23 = Borderline Symptom List 23. DERS-16 = Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-16. EUC-13 = Ego Undercontrol Scale – 13. HSCL-25 = Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 25. Three missing participants for DERS-16, three missing participants for EUC-13. Effect size partial η2 small: 0.01, moderate: 0.06, large: 0.14 (37). Post-hoc Tukey *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001