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Table 1 Socio-demographic, clinical and psychometric characteristics

From: Autonomic vulnerability to biased perception of social inclusion in borderline personality disorder

  BPD HC rMMD Between-groups differences
  n = 30 n = 30 n = 30 Main effect of factor Group* Post-hoc comparisons
Physiological variables
Age 33.2 ± 12.07 38.9 ± 14.65 49.27 ± 9.96 F(2,87) = 12.98, p < .01; ή2p = .23 rMDD>BPD, HC (ps < .01)
Sex (F) 27 (90%) 24 (80%) 26 (86.7%) χ 2 (2) = 1.26, p = .53  
Sport 12 (40%) 17 (56.7%) 11 (36.7%) χ 2 (4) = 4.57, p = .33  
BMI 21.77 ± 3.75 22.70 ± 3.40 26.31 ± 6.25 F(2,87) = 7.98, p = .01; ή 2p = .15 rMDD>BPD, HC (ps < .01)
Psychotropic drugs consumption
 Alcohol 17 (56.7%) 21 (70%) 7 (23.3%) χ 2 (2) = 13.87, p = .01
 Caffeine 24 (80%) 26 (86.7%) 19 (63.3%) χ 2 (2) = 4.84, p = .09
 Tobacco 26 (86.7%) 8 (26.7%) 5 (16.7%) χ 2 (2) = 35.02, p < .01
Social variables
Education (yrs) 11.53 ± 2.89 14.76 ± 3.54 11.23 ± 3.35 F(2,87) = 10.77, p < .01; ή 2p = .20 HC > BPD, rMDD (ps < .01)
Family status
 Married/living together 7 (23.3%) 16 (53.3%) 20 (66.6%) χ 2 (6) = 16.29, p = .01
 Separated/divorced 6 (20%) 1 (3.3%) 4 (13.4%)
 Widowed 0 (0%) 1 (3.3%) 1 (3.3%)
 Living alone/with parents 17 (56.7%) 12 (40%) 5 (16.7%)
Occupation
 Employed 16 (53.3%) 17 (53.4%) 22 (73.3%) χ 2 (6) = 29.13, p = .01
 Housewife 0 (0%) 4 (13.3%) 6 (20%)
 Students 6 (20%) 10 (33.3%) 0 (0%)
Unemployed 8 (26.7%) 0 (0%) 2 (6.7%)
Clinical and psychometric variables
DSM-5 Comorbidity
  Adjustment disorder 12 (40%)   
  Substance Use disorders (in full remission) 10 (33.3%)   
  Alcohol Use disorders (in full remission) 3 (10%)   
  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 1 (3.3%)   
  Eating disorders 2 (6.7%)   
  Personality disorders 11 (36.7%) 3 (10%)   
   Passive-aggressive 2 (6.7%)
   Paranoid 1 (3.3%)
  Histrionic 2 (6.7%)
  Narcissistic 6 (20%)
   Dependent 1 (3.3%)
  Obsessive-Compulsive 3 (10%)
Medications
  Mood stabilizers 25 (83.3%) 4 (13.3%) χ 2 (1) = 28.5, p < .01  
  Antidepressants 13 (43.3%) 30 (100%) χ 2 (1) = 24.7, p < .01
  Antipsychotics 22 (73.3%) 4 (13.3%) χ 2 (1) = 21.08, p < .01
  Benzodiazepines 21 (70%) 14 (46.7%) χ 2 (1) = 4.05, p = .04
  Duration of illness 15.20 ± 12.1   11.77 ± 8.77 F(1.58) = 1.59, p = .21; ή 2p = .03  
  Matrix reasoning 16.80 ± 2.42 20.10 ± 2.94 18.17 ± 3.38 F(2,87) = 9.52, p < .01; ή 2p = .18 HC > BPD, rMDD (ps < .04)
  GAF 72.07 ± 7.31 96.6 ± 4.76 86.57 ± 6.39 F(2,87) = 117.11, p < .01; ή 2p = .73 HC > rMDD>BPD (ps < .01)
  1. Notes
  2. *F-Tests in One-way ANOVA have been performed to compare continuous variables; Chi square tests (χ 2) have been performed to compare categorical variables.
  3. BPD = patients with Borderline Personality Disorder; HC = Healthy Controls; rMDD = patients with Major Depressive Disorder in remission; BMI = Body Mass Index; GAF = Global Assessment of Functioning