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Table 2 Overview on studies concerning impulsivity under stress in ADHD and BPD

From: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revisited – a review-update on common grounds and subtle distinctions

Author Design Population Description Result
Krause-Utz et al. 2016 [21] Neuropsychological laboratory study with stress induction measuring inhibitory control Adult women with BPD (n = 30), adult women with ADHD (n = 28) and CG of women (n = 30) Self-ratings of impulsivity with BIS and UPPS.
Stress induction with MMST.
Measurement of inhibitory control with action withholding (IMT), action cancelation (GoSTop) and delay discounting task.
• Trait impulsivity: ADHD > BPD > CG
• State impulsivity after stress higher in all groups and ADHD = BPD > CG
• Action withholding before stress: ADHD = BPD > HC
• Action withholding deficits after stress significantly higher in BPD (not in ADHD and CG)
• Action cancelation: no differences in inhibition and no stress effect
• Delay discounting: BPD > CG. Preference for immediate reward in ADHD. No stress effect.
Cackowski et al. 2014 [19] Neuropsychological laboratory study with measurement of response inhibition and decision making before and after stress induction Adults women with BPD (n = 31) and CG of women (n = 30), ADHD score controlled for. Self and informant ratings of impulsivity with BIS, UPPS, STAXI and STIMP.
Stress-induction with MMST.
Neuropsychological measurement of response inhibition with go/nogo task and decision making with IGT.
• Trait impulsivity: BPD > CG
• State impulsivity before and after stress: BPD > CG
• Stress-dependent increase in state impulsivity: BPD > CG
• Response inhibition problems under stress: BPD (ADHD-score controlled for) > CG
• Decision making before and after stress: BPD = CG
  1. UPPS Urgency Premeditation Perseverance Sensation Seeking Impulsive Behaviour Scale, MMST Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test, IMT Immediate Memory Task, STAXI State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STIMP State Impulsivity Questionnaire, IGT Iowa Gambling Task