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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the overall sample divided in three groups

From: Maladaptive behaviours in adolescence and their associations with personality traits, emotion dysregulation and other clinical features in a sample of Italian students: a cross-sectional study

  NONE (0) N = 29 NSSI-BE (1) N = 88 OTHER (2) N = 62 p-value Post-hoc
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Sex, n (%)
 M 4 (13.8) 11 (12.6) 15 (25.0) 146  
 F 25 (86.2) 76 (87.4) 45 (75.0)  
 Age 17.8 (1.0) 17.8 (0.8) 18.0 (0.9) 433  
 DERS 77.5 (16.2) 97.5 (26.2) 79.0 (19.5) <.001 (0) vs (1) .001
(1) vs (2) < .001
 CTQ 33.9 (11.0) 37.1 (13.1) 32.6 (7.7) .014 (1) vs (2) .020
 BIS-11 58.5 (9.0) 64.1 (9.6) 60.3 (11.0) .011 (0) vs (1) .030
 PHQ-9 5.5 (2.3) 10.9 (5.5) 6.6 (4.0) <.001 (0) vs (1) < .001
(1) vs (2) < .001
 SCARE 62.2 (9.4) 69.6 (13.0) 61.7 (10.3) <.001 (0) vs (1) .032
(1) vs (2) .001
 ERQ-CR 5.0 (1.1) 4.6 (1.1) 4.9 (0.9) .074  
 ERQ-ES 3.3 (1.2) 3.8 (1.1) 3.5 (1.2) .106  
 Separation Anxiety 0.9 (0.7) 1.4 (0.7) 1.1 (0.6) <.001 (0) vs (1) .001
(1) vs (2) .013
 Anxiousness 1.4 (0.6) 1.8 (0.7) 1.4 (0.6) <.001 (0) vs (1) .019
(1) vs (2) < .001
 Depressivity 0.7 (0.4) 1.0 (0.6) 0.7 (0.5) .001 (0) vs (1) .013
(1) vs (2) .005
 Impulsivity 0.8 (0.5) 1.1 (0.7) 0.9 (0.6) .044 (0) vs (1) .063
 Emotional lability 1.3 (0.7) 1.8 (0.8) 1.3 (0.7) <.001 (0) vs (1) .001
(1) vs (2) < .001
 Hostility 1.0 (0.5) 1.3 (0.5) 1.0 (0.5) .002 (0) vs (1) .006
(1) vs (2) .042
 Risk taking 1.0 (0.4) 1.1 (0.5) 1.2 (0.5) .250  
Perceptual dysregulation 0.5 (0.4) 0.8 (0.5) 0.6 (0.9) <.001 (0) vs (1) .009
(1) vs (2) < .001
 Distractibility 0.8 (0.6) 1.3 (0.6) 0.9 (0.6) <.001 (0) vs (1) .002
(1) vs (2) < .001
 Suspiciousness 1.2 (0.5) 1.4 (0.6) 1.3 (0.5) .162  
Victimization by bulling, n (%)
 Yes 9 (31.0) 49 (56.3) 17 (27.9) .001  
 No 20 (69.0) 38 (43.7) 44 (72.1)
  1. DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, CTQ Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, BIS Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, SCARE Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, ERQ Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (−CR Cognitive Reappraisal; −ES Expressive Suppression)
  2. Kruskal-Wallis for DERS total score, CTQ total score, PHQ-9 total score, SCARE total score, Emotional lability, Separation anxiety, Depressivity, Impulsivity, Risk taking, Hostility, Suspiciousness, Distractibility and Perceptual dysregulation
  3. ANOVA for Age, BIS-11 total score and Anxiousness
  4. Chi-Square test for Sex and Victimization by bulling