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Table 3 Outcome Measure Estimated Means (M) and Confidence Intervals (CI) at Baseline and Each Subsequent Time Point

From: Dialectical behaviour therapy skills reconsidered: applying skills training to emotionally dysregulated individuals who do not engage in suicidal and self-harming behaviours

VariableEstimate T1
M (95% CI)
(n = 97)
Estimate T2 M
(95% CI) (n = 87)
Estimate T3
M (95% CI) (n = 74)
Estimate T4
M (95% CIa)
(n = 51)
% change T1 – T4
Dysfunctional Coping (DBT-WCCL)45.74* (43.85, 47.63)40.24* (38.11, 42.37)36.14* (33.95, 38.33)32.06* (29.65, 34.48)- 30
DBT Skill Use (DBT-WCCL)57.28* (53.48, 61.08)74.14* (69.95, 78.34)80.26* (75.87, 84.66)85.55* (80.82, 90.28)+ 49
Emotion Dysregulation (DERS)128.83* (124.05, 133.60)117.26* (112.04, 122.47)99.76* (94.28, 105.24)88.16* (82.05, 94.27)−32
 Nonacceptance22.02* (20.81, 23.23)20.12* (18.81, 21.43)16.34* (14.96, 17.73)14.41* (12.88, 15.94)−35
 Goals19.98* (19.17, 20.79)18.63* (17.73, 19.52)16.74* (15.78, 17.69)15.22* (14.17, 16.27)−24
 Impulse21.01* (19.88, 22.15)19.08* (17.85, 20.31)16.07* (14.78, 17.36)13.69* (12.30, 15.09)−35
 Awareness19.90* (18.95, 20.85)17.73* (16.69, 18.77)15.29* (14.20, 16.39)13.59* (12.40, 14.80)−32
 Strategies29.20* (27.86, 30.54)26.53* (25.07, 27.99)19.66* (17.97, 21.36)19.66* (17.97, 21.36)−33
 Clarity16.58* (15.82, 17.34)15.13* (14.30, 15.96)13.34* (12.46, 14.21)11.81* (10.84, 12.77)−29
Mindfulness (FFMQ)60.48* (58.09, 62.87)67.86* (65.23, 70.48)74.56* (71.79, 77.32)80.76* (77.78, 83.74)+ 34
 Observe12.42* (11.67, 13.17)13.47* (12.67, 14.27)14.74* (13.91, 15.56)15.18* (14.30, 16.06)+ 22
 Describe13.92* (13.21, 14.63)15.18* (14.40, 15.95)16.54* (15.73, 17.35)17.88* (16.99, 18.76)+ 28
 Non-React10.53* (9.87, 11.19)12.97* (12.23, 13.71)14.44* (13.66, 15.21)15.82* (14.97, 16.67)+ 50
 Act Aware12.07* (11.32, 12.82)13.45* (12.62, 14.28)14.44* (13.56, 15.32)16.37* (15.41, 17.33)+ 36
 Non judge11.61* (10.87, 12.35)12.68* (11.85, 13.51)14.05* (13.18, 14.92)15.47* (14.50, 16.44)+ 33
  1. * = p < .001
  2. a95% CI = 95% confidence interval