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Table 2 Psychometric properties of participants. Means, standard deviations (SD), medians and Mann-Whitney-U-Test statistics (U, Z, p) are reported. Significant differences between the groups are marked with*

From: Altered interoception in patients with borderline personality disorder: a study using heartbeat-evoked potentials

Questionnaires
& subscales
BPD HC Mann-Whitney U-test
Mean SD Median Mean SD Median U Z p
CTQ 66.7 23.3 66.0 31.3 4.9 30.0 39.0 −4.02 < 0.001*
 Emotional abuse 17.9 6.6 19.0 6.1 1.8 5.0 22.0 −4.61 < 0.001*
 Physical abuse 10.7 6.5 7.0 5.2 0.5 5.0 73.5 −3.40 0.002*
 Sexual abuse 8.0 5.6 5.0 5.6 2.4 5.0 109.5 −2.48 0.061
 Emotional neglect 18.9 6.3 21.0 7.4 2.8 6.5 30.0 −4.33 < 0.001*
 Physical neglect 11.2 4.5 10.0 6.1 1.7 5.0 43.0 −4.01 < 0.001*
TAS-20 64.2 7.6 64.0 36.2 7.5 36.0 0.0 −5.20 < 0.001*
 Difficulty Identifying feelings 25.2 3.6 25.0 11.3 4.6 11.0 0.0 −5.21 < 0.001*
 Difficulty describing feelings 18.3 3.4 19.0 9.7 3.4 11.0 13.5 −4.80 < 0.001*
 Externally-oriented thinking 20.7 3.5 20.0 15.2 4.0 16.0 45.5 −3.83 < 0.001*
Dissociative experiences scale 29.9 15.5 28.9 9.2 5.9 8.2 34.0 −4.16 < 0.001*
 Amnesia 12.4 13.9 8.8 4.1 7.3 1.6 79.5 −2.80 0.004*
 Depersonalization/derealization 31.8 20.9 35.0 2.5 3.3 0.8 39.0 −4.06 < 0.001*
 Absorption 38.5 20.0 40.0 14.9 9.6 12.8 50.5 −3.66 < 0.001*
BDI-II 38.2 11.0 40.0 4.6 4.4 3.5 1.0 −5.17 < 0.001*
BSL-23 2.4 0.9 2.7 0.2 0.3 0.1 2.0 −5.41 < 0.001*