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Table 1 Studies included in the revision with relevant information about the possible role of childhood traumas in the relationship between childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and adult Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

From: The role of environmental influences in the complex relationship between borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review of recent findings

StudySize and election sampleType of studyTargeted sampleHealthy control groupAssessment instrumentMain findings
Philipsen et al. 2008 [14]BPD outpatients
N = 118 women
Cross-sectionalClinical studyNoWURS
ADHD-CL
SCID-I
IPDE
BSL
CTQ
A significant association is described between childhood ADHD, childhood emotional abuse, and severity symptoms in women with BPD. Childhood ADHD may be considered a risk factor that predisposes to BPD development in the adulthood.
Prada et al. 2014 [24]Outpatients
N = 114 ADHD
N = 99 BPD
N = 67 BPD-ADHD
Cross-sectionalClinical studyN = 415SCID-II
WURS
ASRS v.11
CTQ
BIS-10
STAXI
LHA
BDI-II
BHS
WHOQOL-BREF
QFS
Compared with adult ADHD, adult BPD patients showed a higher number of childhood trauma.
Ferrer et al. 2017 [23]Outpatients
N = 82 BPD
N = 22 ADHD
N = 56 BPD-ADHD
N = 44 No BPD-No ADHD
Cross-sectionalClinical studyNoSCID-II
DIB-R
CTQ-SF
CADDID
WURS
Adult BPD patients with a comorbid ADHD presented the highest number of childhood trauma experiences. Childhood emotional and sexual abuse was associated to BPD diagnosis in the adulthood, with and without comorbid ADHD. The risk of developing an adult BPD in childhood ADHD could be associated to specific early traumas.
Dalbudak and Evren, 2015 [25]Volunteer university students
N = 271
Cross-sectionalNon-clinical studyNoBPI
ASRS
CTQ-28
BDI
BAI
Depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and severity of ADHD symptoms in adulthood were associated to severity of borderline personality features (BPF). These variables may play a mediator role on the relationship between childhood ADHD and adult BPF.