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Table 1 Pre (T1 n = 82), post (T2 n = 48) and follow-up (T3 n = 34) results on measures from battery evaluating Family Connections (FC) from family member participants

From: Family Connections in different settings and intensities for underserved and geographically isolated families: a non-randomised comparison study

Variable Pre-FC (T1) Post-FC (T2) FU (T3) Main effect of time F (df); p partial η 2 Main effect of group F (df); p partial η 2 Time*group Interaction F (df); p partial η 2
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
BSI
 General Severity Index 41.23 (34.39) 31.94 (29.43) 36.44 (27.55) 4.20 (2,23) p = 0.028* η2 = 0.268 0.123 (1,24) p = 0.729 η2 = 0.005 1.20 (2,23) p = 0.319 η2 = 0.094
 BAS, total 21.97 (12.45) 15.92 (11.50) 14.44 (8.02) 5.06 (2,17) p = 0.019* η2 = 0.373 5.26 (1,18) p = 0.034* η2 = 0.226 5.06 (2,17) p = 0.017* η2 = 0.373
 Activity limitations 9.78 (7.38) 7.21 (6.53) 6.25 (4.72) 3.03 (2,20) p = 0.071 η2 = 0.233 6.56 (1,21) p = 0.018* η2 = 0.238 0.74 (2,20) p = 0.490 η2 = 0.069
 Worry and guilt 8.38 (3.51) 6.09 (3.24) 5.44 (2.98) 11.79 (2,21) p < 0.001*** η2 = 0.529 0.05 (1,22) p = 0.830 η2 = 0.002 6.35 (2,21) p = 0.007** η2 = 0.377
 Social strain 4.09 (3.41) 2.80 (2.74) 2.88 (2.66) 2.74 (2,21) p = 0.108 η2 = 0.207 3.69 (1,22) p = 0.068 η2 = 0.045 5.80 (2,21) p = 0.010** η2 = 0.356
 Composite score for difficult family climate 5.01 (3.57) 3.39 (3.47) 2.25 (2.63) 9.37 (2,17) p = 0.002** η2 = 0.524 0.84 (1,18) p = 0.373 η2 = 0.157 3.39 (2,17) p = 0.058 η2 = 0.285
QAFM
 Perceived Criticism 15.50 (5.52) 13.85 (4.16) 12.94 (3.86) 7.00 (2,21) p = 0.005** η2 = 0.400 3.35 (1,22) p = 0.081 η2 = 0.132 5.92 (2,21) p = 0.009** η2 = 0.361
 Perceived emotional involvement 11.99 (2.89) 11.31 (3.00) 11.71 (2.68) 2.16 (2,23) p = 0.138 η2 = 0.158 5.77 (1,24) p = 0.024* η2 = 0.194 0.424 (2,23) p = 0.660 η2 = 0.036
 Critical Comments 23.88 (6.91) 21.23 (6.99) 19.84 (6.56) 3.62 (2,19) p = 0.046* η2 = 0.276 0.86 (1,20) p = 0.364 η2 = 0.041 4.02 (2,19) p = 0.035* η2 = 0.297
 Emotional Over-involvement 19.21 (4.64) 17.56 (5.01) 16.00 (4.13) 5.68 (2,22) p = 0.010* η2 = 0.341 0.254 (1,23) p = 0.619 η2 = 0.011 1.71 (2,22) p = 0.204 η2 = 0.135
FCS
 Closeness 4.66 (3.71) 5.48 (3.38) 5.71 (3.67) 0.92 (2,23) p = 0.414 η2 = 0.074 1.89 (1,24) p = 0.182 η2 = 0.073 3.86 (2,23) p = 0.036* η2 = 0.251
 Distance 0.88 (1.21) 0.46 (1.01) 0.50 (0.86) 0.71 (2,23) p = 0.500 η2 = 0.058 1.17 (1,24) p = 0.290 η2 = 0.046 1.78 (2,23) p = 0.191 η2 = 0.134
 Expressivity / Spontaneity 0.70 (0.99) 0.33 (0.48) 0.32 (0.64) 4.83 (2,23) p = 0.018* η2 = 0.296 0.656 (1,24) p = 0.426 η2 = 0.027 2.58 (2,23) p = 0.097 η2 = 0.183
 Chaos 1.79 (1.44) 1.35 (1.71) 1.06 (1.35) 3.95 (2,23) p = 0.034* η2 = 0.256 0.216 (1,24) p = 0.647 η2 = 0.009 1.17 (2,23) p = 0.327 η2 = 0.092
KIMS
 Observe 35.49 (8.67) 34.56 (9.65) 37.00 (9.72) 0.07 (2,23) p = 0.932 η2 = 0.006 0.56 (1,24) p = 0.461 η2 = 0.023 4.14 (2,23) p = 0.029* η2 = 0.265
 Describe 26.99 (6.41) 27.07 (5.82) 27.84 (6.54) 1.05 (2,22) p = 0.368 η2 = 0.095 2.88 (1,23) p = 0.103 η2 = 0.111 1.11 (2,22) p = 0.349 η2 = 0.100
 Act with awareness 29.03 (5.89) 29.04 (5.04) 28.85 (5.89) 0.07 (2,23) p = 0.930 η2 = 0.006 0.90 (1,24) p = 0.353 η2 = 0.036 0.290 (2,23) p = 0.751 η2 = 0.025
 Accept without judgement 31.28 (7.31) 33.07 (6.37) 32.25 (7.67) 0.66 (2,22) p = 0.527 η2 = 0.062 0.95 (1,23) p = 0.340 η2 = 0.040 0.42 (2,22) p = 0.665 η2 = 0.40
 QOLI 2.45 (1.61) 2.66 (1.36) 2.40 (1.42) 0.19 (2,20) p = 0.829 η2 = 0.019 2.61 (1,21) p = 0.116 η2 = 0.111 0.34 (2,20) p = 0.717 η2 = 0.033
  1. BSI Brief Symptom Inventory, BAS Burden Assessment Scale, QAFM Questions about Family Members, FCS The Family Climate Scale, KIMS Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, QOLI Quality of Life Inventory
  2. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001