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Table 1 Pre (T1 n = 82), post (T2 n = 48) and follow-up (T3 n = 34) results on measures from battery evaluating Family Connections (FC) from family member participants

From: Family Connections in different settings and intensities for underserved and geographically isolated families: a non-randomised comparison study

Variable Pre-FC (T1) Post-FC (T2) FU (T3) Main effect of time
F (df); p
partial η 2
Main effect of group
F (df); p
partial η 2
Time*group
Interaction
F (df); p
partial η 2
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
BSI
 General Severity Index 41.23 (34.39) 31.94 (29.43) 36.44 (27.55) 4.20 (2,23)
p = 0.028*
η2 = 0.268
0.123 (1,24)
p = 0.729
η2 = 0.005
1.20 (2,23)
p = 0.319
η2 = 0.094
 BAS, total 21.97 (12.45) 15.92 (11.50) 14.44 (8.02) 5.06 (2,17)
p = 0.019*
η2 = 0.373
5.26 (1,18)
p = 0.034*
η2 = 0.226
5.06 (2,17)
p = 0.017*
η2 = 0.373
 Activity limitations 9.78 (7.38) 7.21 (6.53) 6.25 (4.72) 3.03 (2,20)
p = 0.071
η2 = 0.233
6.56 (1,21)
p = 0.018*
η2 = 0.238
0.74 (2,20)
p = 0.490
η2 = 0.069
 Worry and guilt 8.38 (3.51) 6.09 (3.24) 5.44 (2.98) 11.79 (2,21)
p < 0.001***
η2 = 0.529
0.05 (1,22)
p = 0.830
η2 = 0.002
6.35 (2,21)
p = 0.007**
η2 = 0.377
 Social strain 4.09 (3.41) 2.80 (2.74) 2.88 (2.66) 2.74 (2,21)
p = 0.108
η2 = 0.207
3.69 (1,22)
p = 0.068
η2 = 0.045
5.80 (2,21)
p = 0.010**
η2 = 0.356
 Composite score for difficult family climate 5.01 (3.57) 3.39 (3.47) 2.25 (2.63) 9.37 (2,17)
p = 0.002**
η2 = 0.524
0.84 (1,18)
p = 0.373
η2 = 0.157
3.39 (2,17)
p = 0.058
η2 = 0.285
QAFM
 Perceived Criticism 15.50 (5.52) 13.85 (4.16) 12.94 (3.86) 7.00 (2,21)
p = 0.005**
η2 = 0.400
3.35 (1,22)
p = 0.081
η2 = 0.132
5.92 (2,21)
p = 0.009**
η2 = 0.361
 Perceived emotional involvement 11.99 (2.89) 11.31 (3.00) 11.71 (2.68) 2.16 (2,23)
p = 0.138
η2 = 0.158
5.77 (1,24)
p = 0.024*
η2 = 0.194
0.424 (2,23)
p = 0.660
η2 = 0.036
 Critical Comments 23.88 (6.91) 21.23 (6.99) 19.84 (6.56) 3.62 (2,19)
p = 0.046*
η2 = 0.276
0.86 (1,20)
p = 0.364
η2 = 0.041
4.02 (2,19)
p = 0.035*
η2 = 0.297
 Emotional Over-involvement 19.21 (4.64) 17.56 (5.01) 16.00 (4.13) 5.68 (2,22)
p = 0.010*
η2 = 0.341
0.254 (1,23)
p = 0.619
η2 = 0.011
1.71 (2,22)
p = 0.204
η2 = 0.135
FCS
 Closeness 4.66 (3.71) 5.48 (3.38) 5.71 (3.67) 0.92 (2,23)
p = 0.414
η2 = 0.074
1.89 (1,24)
p = 0.182
η2 = 0.073
3.86 (2,23)
p = 0.036*
η2 = 0.251
 Distance 0.88 (1.21) 0.46 (1.01) 0.50 (0.86) 0.71 (2,23)
p = 0.500
η2 = 0.058
1.17 (1,24)
p = 0.290
η2 = 0.046
1.78 (2,23)
p = 0.191
η2 = 0.134
 Expressivity / Spontaneity 0.70 (0.99) 0.33 (0.48) 0.32 (0.64) 4.83 (2,23)
p = 0.018*
η2 = 0.296
0.656 (1,24)
p = 0.426
η2 = 0.027
2.58 (2,23)
p = 0.097
η2 = 0.183
 Chaos 1.79 (1.44) 1.35 (1.71) 1.06 (1.35) 3.95 (2,23)
p = 0.034*
η2 = 0.256
0.216 (1,24)
p = 0.647
η2 = 0.009
1.17 (2,23)
p = 0.327
η2 = 0.092
KIMS
 Observe 35.49 (8.67) 34.56 (9.65) 37.00 (9.72) 0.07 (2,23)
p = 0.932
η2 = 0.006
0.56 (1,24)
p = 0.461
η2 = 0.023
4.14 (2,23)
p = 0.029*
η2 = 0.265
 Describe 26.99 (6.41) 27.07 (5.82) 27.84 (6.54) 1.05 (2,22)
p = 0.368
η2 = 0.095
2.88 (1,23)
p = 0.103
η2 = 0.111
1.11 (2,22)
p = 0.349
η2 = 0.100
 Act with awareness 29.03 (5.89) 29.04 (5.04) 28.85 (5.89) 0.07 (2,23)
p = 0.930
η2 = 0.006
0.90 (1,24)
p = 0.353
η2 = 0.036
0.290 (2,23)
p = 0.751
η2 = 0.025
 Accept without judgement 31.28 (7.31) 33.07 (6.37) 32.25 (7.67) 0.66 (2,22)
p = 0.527
η2 = 0.062
0.95 (1,23)
p = 0.340
η2 = 0.040
0.42 (2,22)
p = 0.665
η2 = 0.40
 QOLI 2.45 (1.61) 2.66 (1.36) 2.40 (1.42) 0.19 (2,20)
p = 0.829
η2 = 0.019
2.61 (1,21)
p = 0.116
η2 = 0.111
0.34 (2,20)
p = 0.717
η2 = 0.033
  1. BSI Brief Symptom Inventory, BAS Burden Assessment Scale, QAFM Questions about Family Members, FCS The Family Climate Scale, KIMS Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, QOLI Quality of Life Inventory
  2. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001