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Table 3 Comparisons of ERS, CERQ and BES results between ADHD and control samples

From: Emotion dysregulation in adults suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison with borderline personality disorder (BPD)

  ADHD Controls    Controls   
  N = 279 N = 87a t p N = 258b t p
mean sd mean sd mean sd
ERS Sensitivity 22.31 8.78 16.29 8.61 5.61 < 0.001 16.43 8.37 7.93 < 0.001
Arousal/Intensity 15.84 7.06 13.11 6.3 3.22 < 0.001 11.48 6.33 7.51 < 0.001
Persistence 9.23 3.78 7.26 4.03 4.18 < 0.001 7.11 3.47 6.75 < 0–001
Total 47.38 18.39 36.66 17.52 4.79 < 0.001 35.02 17.14 8.03 < 0.001
  N = 279 N = 611c t p n = 32d t p
mean sd mean sd mean sd
CERQ Self-Blame 11.53 3.75 8.22 2.96 14.19 < 0.001  
Acceptance 12.83 3.38 11.01 3.53 7.23 < 0.001 12.41 3.16 0.67 0.503
Rumination 12.94 3.86 10.46 3.72 9.12 < 0.001  
Positive Refocusing 9 3.68 10.01 3.53 −3.91 < 0.001 9.5 3.81 −0.73 0.469
Refocusing on Planning 12.94 3.63 13.03 3.89 −0.33 0.744 13.84 3.5 −1.33 0.183
Positive Reapraisial 12.45 3.89 12.46 4.07 −0.03 0.972 14.56 3.9 −2.91 0.003
Putting into perspective 12.27 3.82 11.64 3.91 2.24 0.01 11.44 2.55 1.19 0.232
Catastrophizing 8.66 3.6 6.05 2.43 12.68 < 0.001
Blaming others 8.84 3.53 6.38 2.69 11.43 < 0.001
Adaptive Strategies Tot. 59.49 13.29
Non-adaptive Strategies Tot. 41.97 10.66
  N = 279 N = 73e t p mean sd t p
mean sd mean sd
BES Cognitive 32.39 3.86 37.62 3.46 −10.52 < 0.001
Affective 39.81 7.37 37.49 3.39 2.61 0.01
Total 72.21 9.82 75.11 10.2 −2.22 0.03
  1. Means, standard deviation (SD) and comparisons (coefficient and p value) between ADHD and control samples derived from five independent studies for Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and Basic Empathy Scale (BES)
  2. aNock et al. 2008; bLannoy et al. 2014; cGarnefski et al. 2007; d Daros et al. 2018; e Euler et al. 2017