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Table 2 Comparisons of ERS, CERQ and BES results between ADHD, BPD and comorbid ADHD+BPD

From: Emotion dysregulation in adults suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison with borderline personality disorder (BPD)

  ADHD BPD vs. ADHD ADHD+BPD vs. ADHD vs. BPD
mean sd mean sd coeff. p mean sd coeff. p coeff. p
ERS Sensitivity 22.31 8.78 29.23 7.77 4.82 < 0.001 31.26 5.95 6.97 < 0.001 2.14 0.14
Arousal/Intensity 15.84 7.06 22.07 5.65 4.32 < 0.001 22.86 4.49 5.22 < 0.001 0.90 0.42
Persistence 9.23 3.78 11.71 3.26 1.62 < 0.001 12.50 2.70 2.46 < 0.001 0.84 0.18
Total 47.38 18.39 63.01 15.61 10.76 < 0.001 66.61 12.10 14.64 < 0.001 3.88 0.19
CERQ Self-Blame 11.53 3.75 13.82 3.56 1.72 < 0.005 14.06 3.60 1.96 < 0.001 0.24 0.72
Acceptance 12.83 3.38 13.12 3.46 0.71 0.153 13.38 3.44 0.93 0.08 0.22 0.72
Rumination 12.94 3.86 14.36 3.87 0.56 0.301 14.79 3.54 1.03 0.084 0.45 0.50
Positive Refocusing 9.00 3.68 7.71 3.63 −1.29 < 0.05 7.39 3.17 −1.65 < 0.005 −0.36 0.58
Refocusing on Planning 12.94 3.63 10.82 3.93 −2.32 < 0.001 11.65 3.53 −1.47 < 0.05 0.85 0.19
Positive Reapraisial 12.45 3.89 10.07 4.12 −2.21 < 0.001 10.53 3.56 −1.75 < 0.005 0.46 0.67
Putting into perspective 12.27 3.82 10.76 3.83 − 1.44 < 0.05 10.81 3.66 −1.40 < 0.05 0.05 0.95
Catastrophizing 8.66 3.60 10.27 3.86 1.26 < 0.05 10.79 3.93 1.73 < 0.005 0.47 0.47
Blaming others 8.84 3.53 9.49 3.88 0.49 0.358 10.61 3.60 1.58 < 0.005 1.09 0.09
Adaptive Strategies Tot. 59.49 13.29 52.58 14.02 −6.44 < 0.001 53.76 11.86 −5.32 < 0.05 1.12 0.64
Non-adaptive Strategies Tot. 41.97 10.66 47.93 10.80 4.04 < 0.01 50.57 10.32 6.62 < 0.001 2.58 0.17
BES Cognitive 32.39 3.86 33.15 4.56 −0.04 9.44 31.79 4.60 −1.35 < 0.05 −1.31 0.07
Affective 39.81 7.37 42.93 7.34 0.44 0.658 42.74 6.09 0.41 0.697 −0.03 0.98
Total 72.21 9.82 76.07 10.46 0.40 0.771 74.53 9.11 −0.94 0.517 −1.34 0.42
  1. Comparisons adjusted on age and gender
  2. Means, SD and comparisons (coefficient and p value) between ADHD, BPD and comorbid ADHD+BPD for Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and Basic Empathy Scale (BES)