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Table 2 Descriptive values for scores on Impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), Emotion Regulation Difficulties (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and Childhood Maltreatment Severity (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Clinical Controls (CC) and Healthy Controls (HC) and results of the MANOVA

From: Self-reported impulsivity in women with borderline personality disorder: the role of childhood maltreatment severity and emotion regulation difficulties

Variable BPD (n = 55) CC (n = 54) HC (n = 58) Group statistics
UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale
 UPPS Negative Urgency 2.67 ± 0.87 2.83 ± 0.55 0.22 ± 0.06 F(2, 164) = 350.27, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.81 BPD vs. CC: − 0.17 ± 0.11, 95% CI [− 0.43, 0.10] BPD vs. HC: 2.45 ± 0.11**, 95% CI [2.19, 2.72] CC vs. HC: 2.62 ± 0.11**, 95% CI [2.36, 2.88]
 UPPS Premeditation 2.23 ± 0.50 2.45 ± 0.55 0.18 ± 0.03 F(2, 164) = 494.70, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.86 BPD vs. CC: − 0.22 ± 0.08*, 95% CI [− 0.42, − 0.03] BPD vs. HC: 2.05 ± 0.08**, 95% CI [1.86, 2.24] CC vs. HC: 2.27 ± 0.08**, 95% CI [2.09, 2.46]
 UPPS Perseverance 2.40 ± 0.64 2.58 ± 0.45 0.25 ± 0.05 F(2, 164) = 474.22, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.85 BPD vs. CC: − 0.18 ± 0.09, 95% CI [− 0.38, 0.02] BPD vs. HC: 2.15 ± 0.08**, 95% CI [1.95, 2.34] CC vs. HC: 2.32 ± 0.08**, 95% CI [2.12, 2.52]
 UPPS Sensation Seeking 3.02 ± 0.83 2.74 ± 0.69 0.17 ± 0.04 F(2, 164) = 372.40, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.82 BPD vs. CC: 0.27 ± 0.12, 95% CI [− 0.01, 0.55] BPD vs. HC: 2.85 ± 0.12**, 95% CI [2.58, 3.12] CC vs. HC: 2.58 ± 0.12**, 95% CI [2.30, 2.85]
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale
 DERS Clarity 12.60 ± 4.81 12.81 ± 4.87 8.12 ± 2.58 F(2, 164) = 22.66, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.22 BPD vs. CC: − 0.21 ± 0.80, 95% CI [− 2.12, 1.69] BPD vs. HC: 4.48 ± 0.79***, 95% CI [2.61, 6.35] CC vs. HC: 4.69 ± 0.79***, 95% CI [2.82, 6.57]
 DERS Regulation strategies 21.89 ± 8.03 21.30 ± 7.09 11.84 ± 3.80 F(2, 164) = 42.45, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.34 BPD vs. CC: 0.59 ± 1.25, 95% CI [− 2.36, 3.55] BPD vs. HC: 10.05 ± 1.23***, 95% CI [7.14, 12.95] CC vs. HC: 9.45 ± 1.23***, 95% CI [6.54, 12.37]
 DERS Awareness 16.25 ± 4.96 15.53 ± 3.62 16.88 ± 3.62 F(2, 164) = 1.49, p = 0.23, η2(part) = 0.02 BPD vs. CC: 0.72 ± 0.79, 95% CI [− 1.14, 2.58] BPD vs. HC: − 0.62 ± 0.77, 95% CI [− 2.45, 1.20] CC vs. HC: − 1.34 ± 0.78, 95% CI [− 3.18, 0.50]
 DERS Control 18.05 ± 5.35 14.41 ± 5.30 11.09 ± 2.81 F(2, 164) = 32.28, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.28 BPD vs. CC: 3.65 ± 0.88***, 95% CI [1.56, 5.74] BPD vs. HC: 6.97 ± 0.87***, 95% CI [4.92, 9.02] CC vs. HC: 3.32 ± 0.87**, 95% CI [1.26, 5.38]
 DERS Goals 12.04 ± 5.66 12.69 ± 4.94 11.33 ± 4.25 F(2, 164) = 1.04, p = 0.35, η2(part) = 0.01 BPD vs. CC: − 0.65 ± 0.95, 95% CI [− 2.90, 1.60] BPD vs. HC: 0.71 ± 0.94, 95% CI [− 1.51, 2.92] CC vs. HC: 1.36 ± 0.94, 95% CI [− 0.87, 3.58]
 DERS Acceptance 16.35 ± 6.76 15.56 ± 6.52 10.36 ± 3.40 F(2, 164) = 18.31, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.18 BPD vs. CC: 0.79 ± 1.10, 95% CI [− 1.80, 3.38] BPD vs. HC: 5.98 ± 1.08***, 95% CI [3.43, 8.53] CC vs. HC: 5.19 ± 1.08***, 95% CI [2.63, 7.75]
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire
 CTQ Emotional Abuse 17.53 ± 6.12 10.46 ± 5.11 5.95 ± 1.28 F(2, 164) = 89.80, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.52 BPD vs. CC: 7.06 ± 0.88*, 95% CI [− 4.97, 9.16] BPD vs. HC: 11.58 ± 0.87*, 95% CI [9.52, 13.63] CC vs. HC: 4.51 ± 0.87*, 95% CI [2.45, 6.58]
 CTQ Emotional Neglect 17.45 ± 5.86 11.70 ± 4.91 6.95 ± 2.37 F(2, 164) = 74.14, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.48 BPD vs. CC: 5.75 ± 0.88*, 95% CI [− 3.67, 7.83] BPD vs. HC: 10.51 ± 0.86*, 95% CI [8.46, 12.55] CC vs. HC: 4.76 ± 0.87*, 95% CI [2.70, 6.81]
 CTQ Physical Abuse 9.85 ± 5.09 6.59 ± 2.87 5.16 ± 0.62 F(2, 164) = 28.72, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.26 BPD vs. CC: 3.26 ± 0.64*, 95% CI [1.74, 4.79] BPD vs. HC: 4.70 ± 0.63*, 95% CI [3.20, 6.20] CC vs. HC: 1.44 ± 0.64, 95% CI [− 0.07, 2.94]
 CTQ Physical Neglect 10.49 ± 3.88 6.98 ± 2.57 6.29 ± 1.75 F(2, 164) = 34.63, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.30 BPD vs. CC: 3.51 ± 0.55*, 95% CI [2.22, 4.80] BPD vs. HC: 4.20 ± 0.54*, 95% CI [2.93, 5.47] CC vs. HC: 0.69 ± 0.54, 95% CI [− 0.59, 1.97]
 CTQ Sexual Abuse 11.55 ± 6.62 6.78 ± 4.03 5.33 ± 1.23 F(2, 164) = 29.24, p < 0.001, η2(part) = 0.26 BPD vs. CC: 4.77 ± 0.86*, 95% CI [2.73, 6.81] BPD vs. HC: 6.22 ± 0.85*, 95% CI [4.22, 8.22] CC vs. HC: 1.45 ± 0.85, 95% CI [− 0.56, 3.46]
  1. Table shows means ± standard deviations of scores and results of the multivariate analysis of variance, with post-hoc Tuckey tests
  2. BPD Borderline Personality Disorder (patient group), CC Clinical Control group consisting by ADHD and SUD, CTQ Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, HC Healthy control group, UPPS UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001