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Table 2 Clinical studies

From: Longitudinal associations between non-suicidal self-injury and borderline personality disorder in adolescents: a literature review

Directionality of associations Study’s author(s), year Country N at follow-up (retention rate), % females and mean (M) age at baseline Follow-up period Measure(s) BPD measured at baseline; age of BPD assessment Findings
NSSI predicting BPD Groschwitz et al., 2015 Germany
(terms related to NSSI reported in clinical record were criteria for being recruited for study)
N = 52 (73%); 94.2% females; age of onset of NSSI was 13.9 years 8 years
Mage at follow-up = 21.5 years
Clinically verified record of NSSI
Mage = 21.5 years
No significant association between NSSI group status (prevailing vs. ceased) and later BPD (χ2= 0.265, p = 0.78).
However, earlier age of onset of NSSI (Z = 2.699, p = 0.007, d = 0.82) and longer duration of NSSI (Z = 2.93, p = 0.003, d = 0.94) during adolescence predictive of adult BPD.
Homan et al., 2017 USA
(recruited for NSSI and suicide behaviours)
N = 116 (88%); 71% females; Mage = 16 5 years SHBQ
Clinic records assessed for BPD diagnosis and traits
Mage = 23.6 years
NSSI did not predict BPD 5 years later in univariate model or in multivariate model that included SA, SI, and ST (OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 0.83–2.44, p = .20).
The overall multivariate model (NSSI, SI, SA, ST) was significant (χ2 = 9.52, p = .05).
Koenig et al., 2017
(same sample as Koenig et al., 2018)
(recruited for risk-taking and NSSI)
N = 18 (60%); all females; Mage = 15.3 1 year SITBI-G
SCID-II- German version
Mage = 15.36 years
Participants were recruited for engaging in NSSI. There was a significant decrease in NSSI frequency from baseline to 1-year follow-up (χ2(18)= 15.95, p < 0.001).
There were no significant changes in number of BPD criteria met (χ2(18)= − 3.12, p = 0.078), or the number of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for BPD (χ2(18) = 2.00, p = 0.289) over time. Thus, NSSI predicts stability of BPD diagnosis and symptoms in this sample.
Koenig et al., 2018
(same sample as Koenig et al., 2017)
(recruited for risk-taking and NSSI)
N = 17 (60%); all females; Mage = 15.3 1 year SITBI-G
SCID-II- German version
Mage = 15.3 years
There were no significant differences in the specific BPD symptoms that were endorsed at baseline and 1-year follow-up (p’s > .1). Thus, NSSI predicts stability of BPD criteria symptoms within this sample.
  1. Note. BPD borderline personality disorder, NSSI non-suicidal self-injury, SA suicide attempts, SI suicidal ideation, ST suicide threats, SITBI-G Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview-German version, SCID-II the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, SHBQ The Self-Harm Behaviour Questionnaire