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Table 1 Descriptives of research variables for the total NSSI disorder sample, BPD and no-BPD Group, respectively

From: Differentiating BPD in adolescents with NSSI disorder: the role of adverse childhood experiences and current social relationships

Research variable Total sample NSSI disorder (N = 166) BPD (N = 93) No BPD (N = 73)
  N % N % N %
Gender (N, % = Female) 151 91.0 90 96.8 61 83.6
  M SD M SD M SD
Age 15.04 1.34 15.29 1.29 14.73 1.35
Number of BPD criteria 4.72 2.00 6.16 1.22 2.89 1.10
BPD diagnostic criteria N % N % N %
 Fear of abandonment 57 34.3 47 50.5 10 13.7
 Unstable relationships 96 57.8 77 82.8 19 26.0
 Identity disturbances 64 38.6 55 59.1 9 12.3
 Impulsivity 42 25.3 35 37.6 7 9.6
 Self-harm/Suicidality 164 98.8 93 100.0 71 97.3
 Affective instability 118 71.1 88 94.6 30 41.1
 Inner emptiness 103 62.0 70 75.3 33 45.2
 Inappropriate anger 74 44.6 58 62.4 16 21.9
 Paranoia/Dissociation 66 39.8 50 53.8 16 21.9
Adverse Childhood Experiences N % N % N %
 Antipathy Mother 64 38.6 43 46.2 21 28.8
 Antipathy Father 68 41.0 44 47.3 24 32.9
 Neglect Mother 36 21.7 20 21.5 16 21.9
 Neglect Father 56 33.7 37 39.8 19 26.0
 Parental Loss 54 32.5 33 35.5 21 28.8
 Physical Abuse 42 25.3 29 31.2 13 17.8
 Sexual Abuse 43 25.9 33 35.5 10 13.7
Current social functioning M SD M SD M SD
 Parent relationship Quality 2.91 1.04 2.82 1.01 3.02 1.08
 Peer Relationship Quality 3.10 .94 3.15 .92 3.04 .96
Type of non suicidal self harm N % N % N %
 Cut or carve skin 165 99.4 92 98.9 73 100.0
 Skin scraping 91 54.8 52 55.9 39 53.4
 Wound picking 82 49.4 47 50.5 35 47.9
 Skin burning 65 39.2 43 46.2 22 30.1
 Deliberate self-hitting 54 32.5 33 35.5 21 28.8
 Biting 51 30.7 30 32.3 21 28.8
Severity of Self harm N % N % N %
 In need for treatment after self-harm 44 26.5 31 33.3 13 17.8
Frequency of Self harm M SD M SD M SD
 Thoughts on self-harm last month 22.35 45.66 26.43 58.97 17.11 16.55
 Self-harming behaviours last month 9.22 12.71 9.80 14.79 8.49 9.46
Reported reason for self-harm N % N % N %
 Mental State 138 83.1 77 82.8 61 83.6
 Dispute with parents or family 114 68.7 47 50.5 48 65.8
 School distress 78 47.0 42 45.2 36 49.3
 Dispute with friends 74 44.6 47 50.5 27 37.0
 Dispute with best friend 42 25.3 28 30.1 14 19.2
 Bullied/eviction 46 27.7 26 28.0 20 27.4