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Table 1 Prevalence of comorbid BPD in individuals with SUD

From: Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: an updated review

Reference Sample Diagnostic Instrument N with SUD % female Mean Age (SD) N with BPD (%)
Anestis, Gratz, Bagge, & Tull, 2012 [40] Inpatient - C SCID-I/P; DIPD-IV 176 35.8 36.12 (10.33) 53 (30.1)
Bardeen et al., 2014 [41] Inpatient (cocaine dependence) - C DIPD-IV 58 45 44.5 (6.6) 22 (38.0)
Bornovalova et al., 2008 [42] Inpatient - C SCID 76 32.9 42.2 (8.2) 24 (31.6)
Bottlender, Preuss, & Soyka, 2006 [43] Inpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID-II 237 18.1 42.0 (−-) 42 (17.9)
Dixon-Gordon, Tull, & Gratz, 2014 [44] Residential SUD - C SCID-I; DIPD-IV 246 36.2 35.6 (10.1) 83 (33.7)
Dunsieth et al., 2004 [45] Residential (sex offenders without paraphilias) - C SCID 26 0.0 39.0 (6.1) 4 (15.4)
Gonzalez, 2014 [46] Inpatient Detoxification Unit - C PAS 53 45.3 38.66 (8.45) 11 (21)
Gratz & Tull, 2010 [47] Inpatient (cocaine dependence) - C SCID-IV; DIPD-IV 61 46.0 44.45 (7.05) 24 (39)
Kopetz et al., 2014 [48] Residential SUD - C SCID-I; SCID-II 211 32 45 (7.05) 58 (27.49)
Krieger et al., 2016 [49] Inpatient - C SCID-I; SCID-II 101 30.7 40.3 (12.6) 12 (11.9)
Modestin et al., 2001 [50] Inpatient (opioid dependence) - C SCID-II 100 0.0 29.7 (−-) 51 (51.0)
Preuss et al., 2001 [51] Inpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID 135 20.7 41.8 (8.8) 23 (17.0)
Ross et al., 2003 [52] Inpatient - C SCID 100 19.0 37.1 (9.3) 39 (39.0)
Tull, Gratz, & Weiss, 2011 [53] Inpatient - C DIPD-IV; SCID-I/P 94 44.7 36.0 (10.07) 31 (33.0)
Vergara-Moragues, González-Saiz, Lozano, & García, 2013 [54] Inpatient (cocaine dependence) - C PRISM 218 8.7 30 (13.8)
Webber et al., 2015 [55] Inpatient - C SCID-II 235 53 30.06 (8.41) 120 (51.3)
Yang, Liao, Wang, Chawarski, & Hao, 2015 [56] Inpatient (heroin dependence) - C SCID-I; SCID-II 1002 30.04 33 (6.8) 226 (22.6)
Zikos, Gill, & Charney, 2010 [57] Inpatient (AUDs) - C SCID-I; SCID-II 138 33.0 44 (9.7) 19 (13.0)
Ball, 2007 [58]; Ball & Cecero, 2001 [59] Outpatient (opioid dependence) – C SCID-II 78 54.0 (of those with PDs) 37.4 (5.9) 23 (29.5)
Barral et al., 2017 [60] Outpatient - C SCID-I; SCID-II 937 23.5 37.83 (10.05) 128 (13.7)
Becker, Añez, Paris, & Grilo, 2010 [61] Outpatient (AUD-L) - L S-DIPD-IV 130 31.0 37.4 (10.5) 39 (30.0) - C
Casadio et al., 2014 [62] Outpatient - C SCID-II 320 26.3 40.9 (10.8) 48 (15)
Dammann et al., 2017 [63] Outpatient (opioid dependence) - C SCID-II 26 34.6 41 (6.8) 3 (11.5)
DeMarce, Lash, Parker, Burke, & Brambow, 2013 [64] Outpatient - C SCID-I; SCID-II 183 0.04 50.1 (8.3) 16 (8.7)
Echeburua et al., 2005 [65] Outpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID-I IPDE 30 0.0 0 (0.0)
Echeburua, et al., 2007 [66] Outpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID-I; IPDE 158 34.8 43.4 (−-) 8 (5.1)
Hunter-Reel, Epstein, McCrady, & Eddie, 2014 [67] Outpatient (AUD) – C SCID-II 102 100 45.05 (9.19) 6 (5.88)
Kidorf et al., 2015 [68] Outpatient (opioid dependence) - C SCID-I; SCID-II 125 53.6 39.1 (10.2) 34 (27.2)
Kok, de Haan, Wieske, de Weert, & de Jong, 2017 [69] Outpatient - C SIDP-IV 102 19.6 40.7 (10.8) 2 (2)
Palmer et al., 2003 [70] Outpatient (opioid dependence) - C SCID 107 53.0 43.1 (6.6) 40 (37.4)
Ralevski et al., 2007 [71] Outpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID 225 2.7 47.0 (−-) 68 (30.2)
Zimmerman et al., 2005 [72] Outpatient (MIDAS) - C SCID-I; SIDP-IV 85 15 (17.6)
Chapman & Cellucci, 2007 [73] Incarcerated - C TAAD; SCID-II 58 with Alcohol Dependence 73 with Drug Dependence 100 14 (24.1) of those with alcohol dependence 21 (28.8) of those with drug dependence
Grella et al., 2008 [74] Incarcerated (prison-based substance abuse treatment program) - C SCID-II 280 35.0 34.8 (−-) 37 (13.2)
Mir et al., 2015 [75] Incarcerated - C MINI; SCID-II 93 100 16 (17)
Fenton et al., 2011 [76] Community (NESARC) - C AUDADIS-IV 613 32.5 138 (22.49) of those with drug dependence
Whitbeck, Armenta, & Welch-Lazoritz, 2015 [77] Homeless community - C CIDI; DIPD-IV 47 100 38.9 (10.22) 25 (53.19)
Comin et al., 2016 [78] Outpatient + Inpatient Detoxification Unit (cocaine dependence) - C PRISM 143 18.18 34.28 (8.01) 34 (23.8)
Daigre et al., 2015 [79] Clinicala - C EuropASI; SCID-II 512 24.1 38.8 (10.1) 66 (12.9)
Hasin et al., 2006 [80] Inpatient & outpatient - L PRISM-IV 285 46.0 36.3 (8.8) 56 (19.5) - L
Malik, Chand, Marimuthu, & Suman, 2017 [81] Inpatient & outpatient (AUD) - C MINI; SCID-II 35 100 38.51 (7.42) 6 (17)
Ross et al., 2005 [82] Outpatient, residential, community (heroin dependence) - C CIDI 825 35.0 29.5 (7.8) 388 (47.0)
Rubio et al., 2007 [83] Inpatient & outpatient (alcohol dependence) - C SCID 247 0.0 40.3 (−-) 29 (11.7)
Torrens et al., 2004 [84] Inpatient & outpatient - C SCID 105 31.0 33.3 (7.7) 7 (6.7)
Torrens et al., 2004 [84] Inpatient & outpatient - C PRISM-IV 105 31.0 33.3 (7.7) 12 (11.4)
Wapp et al., 2015 [85] Inpatient & outpatient - C SCID-II; MINI 1205 47.1 35.6 (9.9) 172 (14.3)
  1. NR denotes studies in which the raw count of individuals with BPD was not provided
  2. C Current diagnoses were reported. L Lifetime diagnoses were reported
  3. AUDADIS Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview, DIPD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, EuropASI European Addiction Severity Index, IPDE International Personality Disorder Examination, MINI Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PAS Personality Assessment Schedule, PRISM Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, SIDP-IV Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, TAAD Triage Assessment for Addictive Disorders
  4. aDid not specify if the sample was inpatient or outpatient