Skip to main content

Table 3 Cluster means and effect sizes on validation measures

From: Subtypes of borderline personality disorder patients: a cluster-analytic approach

  Core BPD (n = 83–125)a Extravert/externalizing (n = 11–19)a Schizotypal/paranoid (n = 9–14)a Total (n = 103–165)a Cohen’s d
M SD M SD M SD M SD 1–2 1–3 2–3
PAI-BOR Total 48.45 9.51 42.95 11.62 43.46 11.74 47.37 10.13 .54 .49 .05
Identity Problems 12.76 3.24 10.53 3.26 11.31 3.30 12.37 3.32 .67 .44 .24
Affective Instability 13.66 2.71 11.79 3.26 12.85 3.95 13.37 2.94 .64 .28 .36
Negative Relationships 12.68 2.95 11.68 3.30 12.00 3.14 12.50 3.01 .33 .23 .10
Self-Harm 9.34 4.25 8.95 4.18 7.31 4.17 9.13 4.25 .09 .48 .39
BSI Total 1.91 .76 1.49 .89 1.71 .90 1.84 .79 .53 .24 .28
IIP Total 112.32 39.98 96.35 35.86 110.18 42.07 110.19 39.79 .40 .05 .35
Domineering/Controlling 9.50 5.72 11.00 6.10 8.43 5.24 9.59 5.72 .26 .19 .45
Vindictive/Self-Centered 11.75 5.53 11.68 6.42 13.07 6.16 11.86 5.67 .01 .23 .24
Cold/Distant 13.21 7.41 12.84 7.09 13.21 6.39 13.17 7.24 .05 .00 .05
Socially Inhibited* 16.24 8.45 11.56 6.57 16.21 5.91 15.66 8.16 .57 .00 .57
Overly Accomodating 15.56 7.50 12.26 6.57 15.43 8.93 15.15 7.56 .44 .02 .42
Non-Assertive* 16.36 7.84 10.63 6.18 17.53 8.26 15.76 7.90 .72 .15 .87
Self-Sacrificingb 17.29 6.94 13.95 6.32 16.00 6.66 16.77 6.89 .48 .19 .30
Intrusive/Needy 12.43 5.45 12.42 5.27 10.30 5.32 12.23 5.42 .00 .39 .39
EQ-5D Total** .48 .28 .65 .17 .60 .30 .51 .28 .59 .43 .16
EQ-VAS 57.15 19.29 62.12 16.64 70.23 24.61 58.82 19.76 .25 .65 .40
SIPP Self-Control 2.10 .60 2.29 .66 2.17 .55 2.12 .60 .32 .11 .20
Identity Integration* 1.90 .60 2.42 .65 1.88 .62 1.95 .63 .83 .03 .86
Responsibility 2.60 .57 2.52 .69 2.75 .47 2.60 .57 .13 .26 .39
Relational Capacities 2.29 .64 2.50 .62 2.39 .43 2.32 .63 .34 .16 .18
Social Concordance 2.78 .60 2.72 .66 2.83 .45 2.78 .59 .11 .08 .19
ECR Anxiety 5.09 1.17 4.67 .96 5.17 .52 5.06 1.21 .38 .07 .45
Avoidance 3.70 1.29 3.77 1.52 3.57 1.44 3.70 1.32 .05 .10 .15
CTQ Total 54.78 19.09 61.09 22.00 56.22 19.75 55.58 19.36 .33 .07 .25
Emotional Abuseb 14.22 6.02 17.55 6.04 15.22 6.87 14.66 6.12 .54 .16 .38
Emotional Neglect 15.13 5.60 17.45 6.04 16.22 6.00 15.48 5.68 .41 .19 .22
Physical Abuse 7.72 4.61 8.64 5.64 6.89 3.52 7.75 4.62 .20 .18 .37
Physical Neglect 8.90 3.58 9.73 4.10 9.22 3.27 9.02 3.59 .23 .09 .14
Sexual Abuse 8.81 5.55 7.73 5.97 8.67 4.90 8.68 5.50 .20 .03 .17
  1. PAI-BOR Personality Assessment Inventory borderline features scale, BSI Brief Symptom Inventory, EQ-5D EuroQol EQ-5D-3 L, SIPP Severity Indices of Personality Problems, ECR Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire, CTQ Childhood Trauma Questionnaire
  2. a= n varies due to missing values. Cohen’s d columns show effect sizes between, respectively, clusters 1–2, 1–3, and 2–3. **Significant in (M)ANOVA at p < .05. *Marginally significant in (M)ANOVA with moderate to large ES
  3. bProbable distinguishing based on moderate ES