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Table 3 Path analysis results of direct associations between sex, family adversity, childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting, bullying victimisation, BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms

From: Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation

Predictor Outcome Probit coefficient SE P value
Sexa Dysregulated behaviour −0.527 0.075 <0.001
Sex Bully victimisation −0.097 0.075 0.196
Sex Maladaptive parenting −0.010 0.008 0.192
Sex Depression symptoms 0.235 0.045 <0.001
Sex Psychotic symptoms 0.110 0.047 <0.05
Family adversity Dysregulated behaviour 0.440 0.027 <0.001
Family adversity BPD 0.056 0.019 <0.01
Family adversity Depression symptoms 0.056 0.016 <0.01
Family adversity Psychotic symptoms 0.051 0.017 <0.01
Dysregulated behaviour Maladaptive parenting 0.075 0.004 <0.001
Dysregulated behaviour Bully victimisation 0.327 0.021 <0.001
Dysregulated behaviour BPD symptoms −0.022 0.030 0.475
Dysregulated behaviour Depression symptoms 0.036 0.025 0.147
Dysregulated behaviour Psychotic symptoms 0.013 0.027 0.632
  1. Probit coefficients indicate the strength of association between predictor variables and the probability of group membership, and represent the difference that a one-unit change in the predictor variable makes in the cumulative normal probability of the outcome variable
  2. SE standard error; boldface indicates a significant association
  3. aMale sex was reference category, thus significant negative co-efficient indicates that male sex is significantly associated with the outcome, while significant positive co-efficient indicates that female sex is significantly associated with the outcome