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Table 2 Unadjusted associations between childhood dysregulated behaviour, environmental risk factors, and subsequent BPD

From: Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation

Risk factor BPD outcome
Odds ratio(95% Confidence intervals)
Family adversity during pregnancy 1.24 (1.17, 1.31)
Maternal hitting 1.41 (1.21, 1.65)
Maternal punishment 1.23 (1.11, 1.36)
Maternal hostility (no items reported)
 One item 1.72 (1.29, 2.29)
 Two items 1.80 (1.33, 2.45)
 Three items 2.22 (1.59, 3.11)
Child reported bully victimisation at 8 years 1.14 (1.12, 1.17)
Mother reported bully victimisation at 9 years (no bullying reported)
 Somewhat true 2.43 (1.90, 3.09)
 Certainly true 4.67 (2.99, 7.29)
Child reported bully victimisation at 10 years 1.24 (1.21, 1.27)
Dysregulated behaviour at 4 years 1.08 (1.05, 1.11)
Dysregulated behaviour at 7 years 1.09 (1.06, 1.11)
Dysregulated behaviour at 8 years 1.09 (1.06, 1.12)
  1. Boldface indicates a significant association