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Table 2 Ratings of subjective stress and heart rate in resting condition and stress condition in healthy controls (HC), patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

From: Anger and aggression in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – does stress matter?

  Stress ratings M ± S.D. Paired t-tests Heart rate M ± S.D. Paired t-tests
Resting condition Stress condition Resting condition Stress condition
HC (n = 30) 1.63 ± 1.47 4.33 ± 2.20 t (29) = −6.50 p ≤ .001 d = 1.44 79.48 ± 11.43 101.10 ± 19.63 t (29) = −6.69 p ≤ .001 d = 1.35
BPDa (n = 29) 3.76 ± 1.70 5.72 ± 2.17 t (28) = −4.10 p ≤ .001 d = 1.01 80.96 ± 10.54 97.74 ± 16.92 t (26) = −7.53 p ≤ .001 d = 1.19
ADHD (n = 28) 3.50 ± 2.25 6.79 ± 1.89 t (27) = −5.65 p ≤ .001 d = 1.58 80.53 ± 13.60 93.57 ± 17.07 t (27) = −6.89 p ≤ .001 d = 0.85
ANOVA F (2, 84) = 11.86 p ≤ .001b,c η p 2 = 0.22 F (2, 84) = 10.00 p ≤ .001b,c η p 2 = 0.19   F (2, 82) < 1 p = .939 F (2, 82) = 1.27 p = .285  
  1. Note: a = heart rate data of two BPD patients are missing due to technical problems (n = 27)
  2. b HC vs. BPD significant differences
  3. c HC vs. ADHD significant differences