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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables in healthy control participants (HC), patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

From: Anger and aggression in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – does stress matter?

  HC (n= 30) M ± S.D. BPD (n= 29) M ± S.D. ADHD (n= 28) M ± S.D. F/χ 2 p η p 2 c
Age 27.53 ± 6.60 27.07 ± 6.51 30.11 ± 7.96 1.70 .189  
Intelligence (IQ)
 Raven SPM 111.70 ± 10.50 107.07 ± 12.32 105.46 ± 12.71 2.18 .119  
Income, n (%)
 100-300€ 7 (23) 8 (28) 6 (21)    
 350-500€ 6 (20) 3 (10) 4 (14) 3.00 .934  
 550-700€ 7 (23) 6 (21) 4 (14)  
 750-1000€ 3 (10) 3 (10) 3 (11)    
  + 1000€ 7 (23) 9 (31) 11 (39)    
Years of education, n (%)
 Less than 9 years 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (14)    
 9 years 0 (0) 1 (3) 3 (11) 15.60 .016b .30
 10 years 8 (27) 9 (31) 10 (36)    
 13 years 22 (73) 19 (66) 11 (39)    
Current co-morbidities, n (%)
 MDD   4 (14) 1 (4)    
 Anxiety disorder   11 (38) 5 (18)    
 Substance abuse   0 (0) 0 (0)    
 Eating disorder   8 (28) 3 (11)    
 PTSD   13 (45) 1 (4)    
 OCD   3 (10) 0 (0)    
Medication, n (%) d
No stable medication 30 (100) 23 (88) 25 (89)    
Intake stopped 2 week prior to the study 0 (0) 3 (12) 3 (11)    
WURS-k 6.67 ± 5.71 29.62 ± 16.40 40.29 ± 13.83 53.11 ≤.001a,b,c .56
ADHD-RS 6.53 ± 5.45 19.93 ± 8.68 34.25 ± 7.65 102.64 ≤.001a,b,c .71
CAARS 31.10 ± 17.59 89.66 ± 26.10 121.18 ± 23.58 118.91 ≤.001a,b,c .74
BSL23 2.60 ± 4.12 47.90 ± 20.54 17.18 ± 11.89 81.74 ≤.001a,b,c .66
BDI-II 2.17 ± 3.26 32.00 ± 11.55 16.46 ± 11.35 73.30 ≤.001a,b,c .64
BIS-11 53.40 ± 7.43 66.45 ± 10.49 81.29 ± 10.42 62.16 ≤.001a,b,c .60
DERS 145.00 ± 12.92 85.14 ± 19.31 103.18 ± 19.59 91.31 ≤.001a,b,c .69
  1. Note: Data are presented in means ± standard deviations, statistical group comparisons by analysis of variance (degrees of freedom (df): F (2, 84)) and χ 2 -test for income (df = 8) and education (df = 6); p-value; effect size in η p 2 and φc;
  2. MDD Major Depressive Disorder, PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder, OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, WURS-k Wender Utah Rating scale short version, ADHD-RS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity self-rating scale, CAARS Connor Adult ADHD Rating Scale, BSL-23 Borderline Symptom List-23, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory II, BIS-11 Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale
  3. aHC vs. BPD significant differences
  4. bHC vs. ADHD significant differences
  5. cBPD vs. ADHD significant differences
  6. dThe mentioned percentages refer to 26 of the 29 patients with BPD. For the remaining 3 BPD patients information regarding the medication (whether medication-free or intake was stopped 2 week prior to the study) was either missing or not entirely conclusive retrospectively.