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Table 5 Violent behavior and homicide among DD clinical populations

From: Mental illness and violent behavior: the role of dissociation

Study Population N Violent/homicidal self-states Severe assault Any violent behavior Incarceration IPV (physical/sexual) Sexual assault Childhood maltreatment (physical/sexual) Homicide
Dell & Eisenhower (1990) [34]a Adolescents, outpatient, 100% DID 11 64% N/A 55% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Kluft (1987) [35]a Mothers, outpatient, 100% DID 75 33.3% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 16% N/A
Lewis et al. (1997) [40]a 92% male incarcerated homicide defendants, 100% DID 12 N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A N/A N/A 100%
Loewenstein and Putnam (1990) [36]a 100% male in- and outpatients, 100% DID 21 60% N/A 47% 47% N/A 13% N/A 19%
Putnam et al. (1986) [37]a 92% female in- and outpatients, 100% DID 100 70% (53% internally homicidal) N/A 29% N/A N/A 20% N/A 19%
Ross and Norton (1989) [38]a 88% female in- and outpatients, 100% DID 236 N/A N/A 38.3% 38.8% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Webermann et al. (2014) [6]a 94% female outpatients with DID 275 N/A N/A N/A N/A 3.5% N/A N/A N/A
  1. Timeframe is adult lifetime (except for Dell [1990], which is entire lifespan)
  2. DD dissociative disorder, DID dissociative identity disorder, N/A not applicable (not inquired in the study)
  3. aClinician reports