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Table 4 Violent behavior and homicide among mixed clinical populations

From: Mental illness and violent behavior: the role of dissociation

Study Data source and timeframe N Homicide Severe assault Any violent crime Sexual assault/interpersonal violence Diagnoses represented in study (among only perpetrators when possible)
Bruce et al. (2014) [22]a/b Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search tool, UK, 2009, lifetime timeframe 165 N/A 35.2%b 46.1%a Sexual assault grouped w/severe violence Schizophrenia (66.67%)
Substance use disorder (35.2%)
Antisocial personality disorder (24.2%)
Diagnoses represent total N, not just offenders
Egeland and Susman- Stillman (1996) [33]c Mothers/survivors of childhood maltreatment, outpatient 24 N/A N/A N/A 58.33% childhood maltreatment (dissociation significantly higher among abusive mothers) N/A
Hodgins et al. (2007) [23] a/b Adult inpatients in government mental health hospital, UK, lifetime timeframe 205 N/A 33.2%b 34.1%a N/A Schizophrenia (65%)
Substance use disorder (60%)
Bipolar disorder I or II (18.5%)
Schizoaffective disorder (8.78%)
Jordan et al. (1996) [25]b Women entering prison, US, 6–24 month timeframe 805      Substance use disorder (47.4%)
Borderline personality disorder (28%)
Antisocial personality disorder (11.9%)
Major depression (10.8%)
Kaplan et al. (1998) [32]b Adult outpatients in mood disorder clinic, NY, US, lifetime timeframe 122 0% % N/A but dissociative symptoms significantly/positively correlated with assault N/A N/A DES score above cutoff indicative of potential DD (29%)d
Matejkowski et al. (2008) [24]a Indiana Criminal Justice Institute (US), 1990–2002, 12-year timeframe 95 100% 46% N/A 14% Mood disorder (74%)
Schizophrenia (28%)
Other psychotic disorder (15%)
Quimby and Putnam (1991) [31]c Adult inpatients in state psychiatric hospital, Maine, US, lifetime timeframe 70 N/A N/A N/A % N/A but dissociation significantly/positively correlated w/sexual aggression DES score above cutoff indicative of potential DD (30%)e
  1. DD dissociative disorder, DID dissociative identity disorder, N/A not applicable (not inquired in the study), DES Dissociative Experiences Scale
  2. aArrest records
  3. bSelf-reports
  4. cClinician reports
  5. dDES ≥ 25
  6. eDES ≥ 30