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Table 2 Summary of evidence

From: A systematic review on the relationship between antisocial, borderline and narcissistic personality disorder diagnostic traits and risk of violence to others in a clinical and forensic sample

  Link with violence
Antisocial
Social norms No specific reference within literature.
Deceitfulness No specific reference within literature.
Impulsivity Related to more violent assaults [41]. Did not directly predict aggression once emotional dysregulation was controlled for [40]. Impulsivity related to history of persistent violence [27]
Aggressiveness Disturbed batterers more physically aggressive [7]. Aggressiveness related to ASPD and NPD diagnoses. In BPD aggressiveness linked to poor impulse control. [19].
Reckless Related to more violent assaults [41].
Irresponsibility No specific reference within literature.
Lack remorse No specific reference within literature.
Borderline
Avoid abandonment Avoidant attachment predicted severity of physical partner violence mediated by interpersonal difficulties [31]. Female offenders have greater number of traumatic experiences and less secure attachment styles [22]. ASPD and BPD diagnoses mediated path between by avoidant attachment intimate partner violence [34].
Unstable relationships See ‘Avoid Abandonment’.
Identity disturbance No specific reference within literature.
Impulsivity See ‘Impulsivity’ under Antisocial diagnosis.
Suicidal behavior No specific reference within literature.
Affective instability Emotional Dysregulation predicted physical assault [40].
Emptiness No specific reference within literature.
Anger Impulsivity predicted physical aggression and trait anger. Trait anger mediates relationship between impulsivity and physical aggression. [42].
Paranoid ideation Disturbed batterers higher levels of paranoid ideation [7].
Narcissistic
Grandiose Link between experience grandiose delusions and serious violence. Stronger link to violence when associated with elation or anger [49].
Fantasies of success No specific reference within literature.
Is “special” See ‘Grandiose’.
Excessive admiration No specific reference within literature.
Sense of entitlement Evidence of inflated sense of entitlement linked to violent offenders. When violated more likely to be violent [18]
Exploitative No specific reference within literature.
Lacks empathy Violent offenders have reduced ability to recognise facial emotions [41]. Poor perspective taking exacerbated anger arousal [9]. Violent offender have poorer empathy [7].
Envious No specific reference within literature.
Arrogant No specific reference within literature.