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Table 1 Phenotypic assessment of mothers and infants at two time points

From: New-born females show higher stress- and genotype-independent methylation of SLC6A4 than males


Prenatal/3 rd trimester


Exposure to ELS

Perceived stress (PSS) [33]

Pre- and perinatal complications

Prenatal distress (PDQ) [34]

Perinatal stressors (e.g., asphyxia, cesarian, preterm birth)

Life events (LES) [35]

Pregnancy & obstetric history (birth weight, gestational age, birth complications)

Social support (Soz-U.) [36]

Socio-demographic data

Maternal health risk behavior (e.g. smoking)

Psychosocial risks

Maternal mental & physical health

Maternity log-book data


Semi-standardized neuropsychiatric diagnostic interview (MINI) [37]

Depression screening (EPDS) [38]

Anxiety screening (STAI-S [39], STAI-T [39], ASQ [40])


Individual & family history of metabolic and other medical disorders

  1. ELS = early life stress; PSS = perceived stress scale; PDQ = prenatal distress questionnaire; LES = life experiences survey; Soz-U = social support questionnaire; M.I.N.I. = Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview; EPDS = Edinburgh postnatal depression scale; STAI-S & STAI-T = state-trait anxiety inventory; ASQ = anxiety screening questionnaire.