Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Studies investigating aggression in ♀ and ♂ BPD patients using self-reports, interviews and behavioral tasks

From: Gender differences in aggression of borderline personality disorder

First author Year Sample Methodology Key findings
Banzhaff et al. 2012 170 BPD patients (114 ♀, 56 ♂) BPD: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for personality disorders (SCID-II) ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (32.14 % vs. 10.53 %, p < .001). ♂ BPD patients had higher score in “Dissocial behavior” of the DAPP-PQ than ♀ BPD patients (p < .004).
Aggression: Subscale Dissocial behavior of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire (DAPP-BQ)
Barrachina et al. 2011 484 BPD patients (402 ♀, 82 ♂) BPD: SCID II, Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R) ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (22% vs. 8.2 %, p < .008).
Black et al. 2007 220 offenders newly committed to prison (198 ♂, 22 ♀) BPD: Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV) 65 offenders (29.5%) met criteria for BPD. More women (54.5%) than men (26.8%) met criteria for BPD (p = .007).
Brambilla 2004 10 BPD patients ((6 ♀, 4 ♂), 20 HC (gender ratio: n/a) BPD: IPDE BPD showed higher volume of the putamen (p = .002) compared with HC.
Neuroimaging: stMRI, manual tracing
Costa et al. 2008 130 intimate aggressive ♂, 48 non aggressive ♂ BPD: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Jealousy correlated positively with BPD symptomatology (r = .13, p < .05).
Intimate partner aggression: Revised conflict tactics scale (CTS2), General Violence Questionnaire
Grant et al. 2008 2004 BPD patients (gender distribution not mentioned) BPD: Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (19.4% vs. 9 %, p < .001).
Grilo et al. 2002 100 BPD patients (69 ♀, 31 ♂) BPD: Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (48% vs. 0 %).
Hines et al. 2008 14,154 university-students (10100 ♀, 4054 ♂) BPD: Personal and Relationships Profile No BPD x gender interaction for physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner aggression (p > .05 for all contrasts).
Intimate partner aggression: CTS2
Holtzworth et al. 2000 102 intimate aggressive ♂, 62 non aggressive ♂ BPD: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Identified four clusters of violent men, among them the so-called borderline-dysphoric men characterized by high measures on dependency, jealousy, impulsivity and hostility towards women.
Intimate partner aggression: CTS2, Generality of Violence Questionnaire
Johnson et al. 2003 240 BPD patients (175 ♀, 65 ♂) BPD: DIPD-IV ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (29.7% vs. 10.3 %, p < .0001).
McCloskey et al. 2009 127 BPD patients (69 ♀, 58 ♂) of whom 40 with comorbid ASPD, clinical control group consisting of 122 patients with a non cluster-B personality disorder (57 ♀, 65 ♂) and 112 HC (55 ♀, 57 ♂) BPD: Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV) No group x gender interaction in the AQ (Wilks F <1).
No difference between ♂ and ♀ BPD patients in the post-hoc analysis of the LHA (p < .01, based on personal communication). ♀ BPD patients were more self-aggressive than the ♂ BPD patients (p < .01)
Aggression: Life History of Aggression (LHA), Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP)
No effect of gender or gender x group interaction in the PSAP (Wilks F < 1).
McCormick et al. 2007 163 BPD patients (138 ♀, 25 ♂) BPD: SIDP-IV ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (40% vs. 21 %, p < .03).
Newhill et al. 2009 220 BPD patients (116 ♀, 104 ♂) BPD: Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality No gender difference in aggression of BPD patients (p = .342)
Aggression: arrest records, collateral reports, patients report using behaviors adapted from the CTS2
Prehn et al. 2013 15 ♂ BPD-ASPD, 17 ♂ HC BPD: IPDE ♂ BPD-ASPD displayed increased amygdala activity exclusively in response to high, but not neutral and low emotional stimuli when compared to ♂HC.
Neuroimaging: fMRI during presentation of emotional & neutral pictures
Ross et al. 2009 124 intimate aggressive ♂ (7 BPD patients, 16 BPD-ASPD, 18 ASPD patients and 83 subjects without a personality disorder) BPD: SCID-II ♂ BPD-ASPD were more likely than ASPD-patients (p < .01) and subjects without a personality disorder (p < .01) to react aggressively upon women’s displays of stress.
Intimate partner aggression: CTS2
Scott et al., 2014 75 psychiatric outpatients and 75 community residents (98 ♀, 52 ♂) BPD: dimensional score using a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders checklist and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Gender did not influence the prediction of BPD on aggression.
Aggression: Revised Conflict Tactics Scale
Silberschmidt et al. 2015 770 BPD (559 ♀, 211 ♂) BPD: DIPD-IV No gender difference in aggression of BPD patients (p = .193). ♀ BPD patients showed enhanced hostility than the ♂ BPD (p = .011).
Aggression: OAS-M
Hostility: The Symptom Checklist 90 Revised
Tadic et al. 2009 159 (110 ♀, 49 ♂) BPD: SCID-II ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD and higher prevalence of the criterion intensive anger (73.5% vs 49.1%, p < .001) than ♀ BPD patients (57.1% vs. 25.51%, p < .001).
Weinstein et al. 2012 847 late middle-age (55-64) adults (347 ♀, 500 ♂) from a community sample BPD: SIDP-IV, Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology (MAPP) fulfilled by the participant and an informant In ♀, but not ♂, subjects intimate partner aggression was related to BPD traits (regression-coefficients: 37.5 for the SIDP-IV, 10.2 for the self-MAPP and 8.9 for the informant-MAPP).
Intimate partner aggression: CTS2
Zanarini et al. 1998 379 BPD patients (296 ♀, 83 ♂) BPD: Diagnostic Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, DIB-R ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (48 % vs. 16 %, p < .00001).
Zlotnick et al. 2003 149 BPD patients (104 ♀, 45 ♂) BPD: SIDP-IV ♂ BPD patients had higher prevalence of ASPD than ♀ BPD patients (38.6% vs. 11.4 %, p < .001).
  1. The studies are listed in alphabetical order based on the author’s first name.
  2. Abbreviations: AQ: Aggression Questionnaire, BG-LHA: Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of aggression, BDHI: Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, DIB-R: Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines- Revised, CTS2: Revised conflict tactics scale, DAPP-BQ: Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire, IPDE: International Personality Disorders Examination, LHA: Life History of Aggression, MAPP: Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology, m SCID-II: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, OAS-M: modified Overt Aggression Scale SIDP-IV: Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality.