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Table 3 Predictors and protective factors described in longitudinal studies using a NSSI definition

From: The longitudinal course of non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm: a systematic review of the literature

Domain Predictor Number of studies
Personal   Predictor for NSSI during follow-up, existing before baseline Predictor for NSSI during follow-up, measured at baseline
Gender Female gender 11  
NSSI (Previous) NSSI 6 6
Lifetime NSSI methods 1  
NSSI thoughts   1
Low implicit and explicit aversion to NSSI stimuli   1
Forecasting future NSSI   1
Suicidality History of suicide attempt 3  
  Suicidal ideation   3
Psychiatric symptoms Depressive symptoms   7
Conduct disorder/problems   3
Anxiety   2
BPD features (e.g. emotional reactivity, unstable relationship, unstable sense of self-image)   2
Drug and alcohol use impairment   2
Neurologic or psychiatric disease   1
Persistent psychotic experiences   1
Psychological impairment Psychological distress   5
Hopelessness   2
Emotional problems   1
Problem behaviors   1
Lower self-esteem   1
Greater internalizing problems   1
Behavioral impulsivity   1
Negative emotions   1
Rumination   1
Attachment anxiety   1
Life events More stressful or negative life events   2
Early sexual debut   1
Physical and sexual abuse   1
Other Negative attributional style   3
Negative cognitive style   1
Excessive reassurance seeking   1
Being single (male)   1
Non-heterosexual sexual interest   1
Younger age   1
Family Onset of parental depression   1
Lower perceived family support   1
Problems with parents   1
Social Friends’ engagement in NSSI   2
Social adaption problems/   1
Problems with peers   1
Lack of social support   1
Relationship problems   1
Negative interactions   
Protective Higher self esteem   2
Social support   1
Cognitive reappraisal   1
Parental care   1
  1. Number of studies: Number of studies describing the specified predictor.
  2. Only predictors for NSSI at follow-up were included.