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Table 2 Longitudinal studies of DSH from community and clinical samples (n = 9)

From: The longitudinal course of non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm: a systematic review of the literature

Study Country Population Age at baseline N Follow-up period Outcomes
Community samples
O´Connor et al., 2009 [31] Scotland Community sample Mean age: 15.2 (SD: 0.72), age range: 15–16 years 500 6 months baseline: 9.5% (12 month prevalence)
T1: 6.2% (6 month prevalence)
2.6% for the first time
3.6% repeaters
Lundh et al., 2011 [41] Sweden Community sample Grade 7 and 8 879 at both waves 12 months baseline: 45.1% (female) and 37.9% (male) (6 month prevalence)
Bjärehed et al., 2012 [42]
incidence rate: 10.4% (female), 8% (male)
Larsson & Sund, 2008 [33] USA Community sample adolescents Mean age: 13.7 (SD: 0.58), age range: 12–15 years 2360 12 months baseline: 4.2%
T1: 12.7% (12 months)
incidence rate: 2.4%
Stallard et al., 2013 [43] UK Community sample 12-16 years 3955 12 months baseline: 9.6% (6 month prevalence)
T1: 10.9% (6 month prevalence)
cumulative: 15% DSH during study period
55.1% continued DSH after one year
Wichstrom, 2009 [44] Norway Community sample adolescents Mean age: 16.5 years (SD: 1.9) 2924 60 months baseline: 2.4% (lifetime prevalence)
T1: 2.2% (during follow-up period)
9.9% of baseline DSH continued
Rossow & Norström, 2014 [32] Norway Community sample Mean age: 16.5, age range: 14-21 2647 60 months baseline: 3.2% (12 month prevalence)
T1: 1.6%
stable DSH at both points: 0.30%, decrease in DSH: 2.9%
new DSH. 1.3%
Moran et al., 2012 [13] Australia Community sample Mean age: 15.9 (SD 0.49) 1652 (responding to questions of DSH at least once in adolescence and once in adulthood) 174 months first assessment of DSH at wave three (baseline of DSH): 5.1% (12 month prevalence)
at wave 9: 0.5% (6 month prevalence)
any self harm during adolescence: 8.3%, any self-harm during young adulthood: 2.6%
only cutting/burning: 4.6% in adolescent phase
1.2% in young adult phase
new DSH in young adulthood: 1.6% remission in young adulthood: 7.4%, continuation in young adulthood: 0.8%
Clinical samples/samples from hospitals
Hawton et al., 2012 [45] UK Individuals presenting with self harm to hospital 0-18 years 5205 72 months Repetition of DSH: 27.3%
17.1% of self harm epidsodes: self-injury
Sinclair et al., 2010 [46] UK Clinical sample: self harm patients: 94% self-poisoning, 4% self-injury, 2% both self-poisoning and self-injury Median age: 28.4 years 143 74 months Further self-harm in 57.4%
Wedig et al., 2012 [14] USA Clinical sample: Patients with Borderline personality disorder Mean age: 26.9 years 231 192 months (16 years, Tx every 2 years) Baseline: 90.3%
T1: 50.9%
T2: 35.3%
T3: 28.4%
T4: 22.4%
T5: 17.7%
T6: 23.0%
T7: 18.5%
T8: 14.3%
  1. T1: first assessment after baseline.
  2. N is provided for the last wave of the respective studies to describe participants being included in the longitudinal design.