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Table 1 Longitudinal studies of NSSI from community and clinical samples (n = 22)

From: The longitudinal course of non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm: a systematic review of the literature

Authors Country population Age at baseline N Follow-up period Outcome
Community samples
You et al., 2012 [16] China Community sample Mean age: 14.63 (SD: 1.25) 2435 6 months Baseline: 24.9% (12 month prevalence)
T1: 13.9% (6 month prevalence)
10.7% of sample: NSSI at both time points
Franklin et al., 2014 [17] USA Community sample Mean age: 24.37 (SD: 8.28) 49 6 months Baseline: 100%, (cutting: sum: 248, mean: 5.06, SD: 7.44) Follow-up: 20 reported no cutting during the follow-up (but at baseline); cutting: sum:164, mean: 3.42 (SD: 6.08)
Wan et al., 2014 [18] China Community sample Mean age: 16.1 (SD: 2.8), age range: 12–24 years 13923 9 months Baseline NSSI: 17.0% (12 month prevalence)
3 months follow-up: 10.5% (3 month prevalence)
6 months follow-up: 7.8% (3 month prevalence)
9 months follow-up: 8.8% (3 month prevalence)
Hasking et al., 2013 [26]; Tatnell et al., 2014 [36] Australia Community sample Mean age: 13.89 (SD: 0.97), age range: 12–18 years 1973 11.7 months Baseline: 8.3% (lifetime prevalence)
T1: 11.9%
3.8% initiated NSSI
Modén et al., 2013 [15] Sweden Register study of all adults in Scania Adults 936449 12 months Incidence rate: 91/100 000 (male), 128/100 000 (female)
19.3% of males with recent NSSI have injured themselves in the three years before, as well as 23.9% of females
Hamza & Willoughby, 2014 [19] Canada University sample Mean age: 19.15 666: 466 with past or recent NSSI + 200 controls without NSSI from a larger sample of 1153 12 month Baseline: 38% (lifetime prevalence)
T1: 2% (incident NSSI)
Beginners: New NSSI at T1: 5.72% of participants with NSSI
Recovered: lifetime NSSI but no NSSI since one year before baseline: 41,31%
Relapsers: lifetime NSSI, no NSSI one year prior to baseline but NSSI prior to T1: 9.96%
Desisters: NSSI in 12 month prior to baseline but not in 12 month prior to T1: 28.39%
Persisters: NSSI 12 months prior to baseline and T1: 14.62%
You et al., 2014 [20] China Community sample Mean age: 14.63 (SD: 1.25) 3600 12 months Baseline: 10.3% (6 month prevalence)
T1: (6 months follow-up): 12.7%
T2 (12 months follow-up): 9.2%
Martin et al., 2014 [37] Australia Community sample Mean age: 14.87 (SD: 0.95) 1896 12 months Baseline: 6%
T1: 12 months after baseline: 3.7% (incident NSSI)
Prinstein et al., 2010 (Study 1) [12] USA Community sample adolescents 8th grade 377 12 months Baseline: 7.4% (12 month prevalence)
After one year: 3.2%
Glenn & Klonsky, 2011 [21] USA College sample screened for NSSI Mean age: 18.96 (SD: 1.57) Baseline: 81 12 month follow-up: 51 12 months Baseline: 100% (lifetime prevalence)
52% (6-month prevalence)
12 month follow up: 62.7% NSSI (12 month prevalence)
Whitlock et al., 2012 [38] USA College sample Mean age: 20.3 (SD: 4) 1466 24 months Baseline: 13.7% (lifetime prevalence)
New NSSI at year 1: 5.2%
New NSSI year 2: 0.8%
Cumulative prevalence: 19.7%
Marshall et al., 2013 [27] Sweden Community sample Mean age: 13.21 (SD: 0.57) 506 24 months Baseline: 0.20 (6 months: mean of Deliberate Self Harm Inventory item scores)
T1: 0.24
T2: 0.25
Barrocas et al., 2014 [22] China Community sample Mean age: 16.02 (SD: 0.61) 617 24 months (assessment every 3 months) T1 (3 months after baseline): 23.8%
T2: 17.6%
T3: 17.2%
T4: 11.4%
T5: 13.8%
T6: 12.2%
T7: 11.5%
T8: 11.1% (all 3 months prevalence)
Voon et al., 2014 [28] Australia Community sample Mean age: 13.9 (SD:. 0.99) 3143 24 months Baseline: 8.1%
T1: 24 months after baseline: 10,1% (lifetime prevalence)
Hankin & Abela, 2011 [29] USA Community sample M age = 12.63, SD = 1.25 97 at both waves 30 months Baseline: 8% (12 month prevalence)
Follow up: 18% newly initiated: 14%
Continuation: 50% (n = 4)
Baetens et al., 2014 [30] Belgium Community sample Mean age: 12 years 533 (all time points) 30 months Baseline: 5.15% lifetime prevalence
T1: 12 months after baseline: 2.78% (12 month prevalence)
T2: 30 months after baseline: 5.31% (12 month prevalence)
Cumulative: 10.70% (lifetime prevalence)
Clinical samples or clinical studies
Rosenbaum Asarnow et al., 2011 [39] USA Participants of depression treatment study x Mean age: 14.2 (SD: 1.2) 327 6 months Baseline: 23.9% NSSI alone, 14% NSSI and suicidal attempt
T1: 11% incidence rate
Wilkinson et al., 2011 [40] UK Participants of depression treatment study Mean age: 14.2 (SD: 1.2) 163 7 months Baseline: 36% (1 month prevalence)
T1: 37% (during follow-up)
Guerry & Prinstein, 2010 [23] USA Child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients Mean age: 13.51 (SD: 0,75), age range: 12–15 years 143 18 months Baseline: 67,9% (12 month prevalence)
T1: 3 month: 32.7% (last 3 month)
T2: 6 month: 29.0%
T3: 9 months: 34.0%
T4: 15 months: 22.8%
T5: 18 months: 28.4%
Prinstein et al., 2010 (Study 2) [12] USA Child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients Mean age: 13.51 (SD: 0,75), age range: 12–15 years 140 18 months Baseline 1.14
T1: 9 months: 1.11, T2: 18 months: 1.10 (mean score of NSSI behaviors: 12 month prevalence)
McGlashan et al., 2005 [24] USA Patients with personality disorders Adults, age range: 18-45 474 (201 with Borderline Personality disorder) 24 months Baseline: 60%
T1: 24 months: 30%, remission in 46%
Tuisku et al., 2014 [25] Finland Adolescent outpatients Mean age: 16.5 139 96 months Baseline: 32.4%
T1: 12 months after baseline: 21.7% (12 months prevalence)
T2: (96 months after baseline): 16.1%
  1. T1: first assessment after baseline.
  2. T2-Tx: consecutive assessments.
  3. N is provided for the last wave of the respective studies to describe participants being included in the longitudinal design.
  4. Studies are sorted by follow-up time-frame.