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Table 1 Sleep questionnaire results comparing frequent nightmare sufferers (NM) with healthy controls (HC)

From: Nightmares affect the experience of sleep quality but not sleep architecture: an ambulatory polysomnographic study

Scale (questionnaire) NM HC NM vs. HC Effect size
   t p d
Daytime sleepiness (ESS) 9.53 ± 3.27 7.44 ± 2.68 −1.596 0.03* 0.70
Sleep quality (LISST) 21.04 ± 5.34 15.13 ± 6.10 −2.864 0.004* 1.03
Apnea symptoms (LISST) 5.40 ± 2.59 4.33 ± 0.82 −1.528 0.145 0.57
RLS symptoms (LISST) 7.67 ± 2.06 8.06 ± 3.49 0.381 0.706 0.13
Problems with sleep/wake pattern (LISST) 19.20 ± 6.33 15.69 ± 5.78 −1.615 0.059* 0.58
Insomnia symptoms (LISST) 17.87 ± 4.93 11.75 ± 4.28 −3.697 < 0.001* 1.33
Tiredness during the day (LISST) 15.47 ± 6.63 10.75 ± 4.17 −2.353 0.013* 0.86
Parasomnias (LISST) 18.68 ± 6.60 10.69 ± 4.70 −3.903 < 0.001* 1.40
Sleep quality (SF-B) 3.39 ± 0.59 3.88 ± 0.47 2.603 0.007* 0.92
Feeling of being refreshed (SF-B) 2.59 ± 0.77 3.09 ± 0.83 1.713 0.049* 0.62
Feeling balanced/relaxed in the evening (SF-B) 3.02 ± 0.59 3.69 ± 0.68 2.911 0.004* 1.05
Feeling exhausted in the evening (SF-B) 3.84 ± 0.59 3.94 ± 0.68 0.406 0.344* 0.16
Psychosomatic symptoms while sleeping (SF-B) 1.90 ± 0.73 1.66 ± 0.45 −1.112 0.139* 0.40
  1. ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Scale [41], LISST: Landecker Inventar zur Erfassung von Schlafstörungen [39], SF-B: Schlaffragebogen-B [40].
  2. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation; effect sizes as d.
  3. *One-tailed t-test.