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Table 1 Studies on imaging genetics in adult ADHD

From: Imaging genetics in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a way towards pathophysiological understanding?

Authors Participants Paradigm Gene variant Imaging Imaging genetics results
Baehne et al. [21] 124 patients Go/NoGo task (CPT) TPH2 (G-allele polymorphism in rs4570625, T-allele polymorphism in rs11178997) EEG (NGA) Reduced NGA in risk allele carriers in ADHD and healthy controls
84 controls
Dresler et al. [24] 161 patients Go/NoGo task (CPT) SLC6A3 (3′ UTR VNTR) EEG (NGA) Reduced NGA in 9-repeat allele carriers in the patients, no influence in healthy controls
109 controls
Fallgatter et al. [29] 216 patients Go/NoGo task (CPT) LPHN3 EEG (NGA) Reduced NGA in the LPHN3 high risk group
Heinzel et al. [25] 181 patients Go/NoGo task (CPT) COMT (Val158Met), DRD4 (exon 3 VNTR) EEG (NGA) Significant DRD4 × COMT interaction on NGA (DRD4 no7R: inverted u-shape with increasing COMT-dependent DA levels, DRD4 7R: u-shape), no gene main effects, no interaction with group
114 controls
Brown et al. [23] 52 patients Working memory (n-back) SLC6A3 (3′ UTR VNTR) fMRI Marginal reduced left mePFC signal in 9-repeat allele carriers in patients and controls, marginal genotype-by-diagnosis interaction in the SMA/dACC (increased activation in 10-repeat allele homozygous patients vs. controls)
38 controls
Brown et al. [30] 42 patients Multi-source interference task SLC6A3 (3′ UTR VNTR) fMRI Hypoactivation in 9-repeat allele homozygous patients in the left dACC
Hoogman et al. [32] 63 patients Delay discounting task NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR fMRI SS-allele carriers demonstrate higher ventral striatum activity in patients
41 controls
Hoogman et al. [34] 87 patients Delay discounting task SLC6A3 (3′UTR VNTR/intron 8 VNTR haplotype) fMRI No significant effects of DAT1 haplotype on striatal activity
77 controls
  1. CPT, continuous performance test; DA, dopamine; dACC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; EEG, electroencephalography; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; mePFC, medial prefrontal cortex; NGA, NoGo-anteriorisation; SMA, supplementary motor area; UTR, untranslated region; VNTR, variable number of tandem repeats.