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Table 4 Borderline symptoms and psychopathology: descriptive means ( M d ), standard deviations ( SD ) and multilevel-model implied means ( M m )

From: Effectiveness of dialectic behavioral therapy in routine outpatient care: the Berlin Borderline Study

  M d and SD M m Difference scores
Outcome t0 t1 t2 t3 t0 t1 t2 t3 t0-t1 t1-t2 t1-t3
BSL 2.10 (0.54) 1.89 (0.73) 1.81 (0.74) 1.68 (0.89) 2.09 1.90 1.87 1.70 -0.19* -0.03 -0.19
QTF 3.73 (0.55) 3.62 (0.55) 3.42 (0.71) 3.25 (0.82) 3.71 3.62 3.49 3.25 -0.10 -0.13 -0.36***
BDI 31.12 (8.60) 26.78 (12.24) 24.27 (10.22) 21.72 (13.97) 30.77 27.07 24.89 22.21 -3.70* -2.18 -4.87*
HAMD 11.69 (4.67) 11.09 (6.31) 7.42 (4.60) 8.04 (6.11) 12.13 10.81 8.17 9.09 -1.32 -2.64*** -1.71*
BSI-GSI 1.92 (0.64) 1.95 (0.73) 1.64 (0.80) 1.46 (0.90) 1.92 1.93 1.67 1.49 0.01 -0.26* -0.44***
DSS 29.70 (16.35) 25.95 (19.08) 22.27 (17.26) 20.03 (16.84) 30.18 26.16 23.90 20.64 -4.02* -2.26 -5.52**
  1. Note: *** p < .001; ** p < .01; * p < .05.
  2. P-values are based on multilevel model difference scores β10(t0-t1), β20 (t1-t2), β30 (t1-t3) (n = 47).