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Table 1 Comparison of treatments for borderline patients when suicide is the complaint

From: Psychotherapy for suicidal patients with borderline personality disorder: an expert consensus review of common factors across five therapies

Topic GAPPC common factors BSSG candidate interventions Links common principles Bateman common characteristics
Treatment structure Negotiate a frame for treatment in pre-treatment phase to clarify responsibility and establish a crisis plan Clear treatment framework. Increased activity of the therapist to provide a stable framework Active stance by the therapist to validate and demonstrate empathy, generate attachment and create alliance
Defined strategy for managing suicide crises
Patient role Recognize and insist on patient’s responsibilities   Foster “greater sense of self agency” Encourage increased activity, proactivity and self-agency for patient
Therapist behavior Provide the therapist with coherent conceptualization of meaning of behavior and interventions Use theory and associated interventions to guide and ground treatment Promote confidence based on model of understanding. Manual provides recommended interventions.
Connection between action and feelings Focus on connections between acts and feelings.
Explain model of pathology to patient to promote cognitive coherence.
Therapeutic relationship Use the therapeutic relationship and attachment to the therapist to engage suicide    Generate attachment, as above
Handling threat of suicide Prioritize suicide as a topic to address in sessions   Empathic validation plus prioritization of self destructive behaviors  
Support for therapist Provide support for the therapist   Consultation, supervision, attention to countertransference Manual supports the therapist